Rome can be pricey for travelers, which is why many choose to stay in a hostel (旅社). The hostels in Rome offer a bed in a dorm room for around $25 a night, and for that, you’ll often get to stay in a central location (位置) with security and comfort.
If I had to make just one recommendation for where to stay in Rome, it would be Yellow Hostel. It’s one of the best-rated hostels in the city, and for good reason. It’s affordable, and it’s got a fun atmosphere without being too noisy. As an added bonus, it’s close to the main train station.
If you love social hostels, this is the best hostel for you in Rome. HostelAlessandroPalace is fun. Staff members hold plenty of bar events for guests like free shots, bar crawls and karaoke. There’s also an area on the rooftop for hanging out with other travelers during the summer.
Youth Station Hostel
If you’re looking for cleanliness and a modern hostel, look no further than Youth Station. It offers beautiful furnishings and beds. There are plenty of other benefits, too; it doesn’t charge city tax; it has both air conditioning and a heater for the rooms; it also has free Wi-Fi in every room.
Hotel and Hostel Des Artistes
Hotel and Hostel Des Artistes is located just a 10-minute walk from the central city station and it’s close to all of the city’s main attractions. The staff is friendly and helpful, providing you with a map of the city when you arrive, and offering advice if you require some. However, you need to pay 2 euros a day for Wi-Fi.
21. What is probably the major concern of travelers who choose to stay in a hostel?
22. Which hotel best suits people who enjoy an active social life?
A. Yellow Hostel.
C. Youth Station Hostel.
D. Hotel and Hostel Des Artistes.
23. What is the disadvantage of Hotel and Hostel Des Artistes?
A. It gets noisy at night.
B. Its staff is too talkative.
C. It charges for Wi-Fi.
D. It’s inconveniently located.
By day, Robert Titterton is a lawyer. In his spare time though he goes on stage beside pianist Maria Raspopova—not as a musician but as her page turner. “I’m not a trained musician, but I’ve learnt to read music so I can help Mariain in her performance.”
Mr Titterton is chairman of the Omega Ensemble but has been the group’s official page turner for the past four years. His job is to sit beside the pianist and turn the pages of the score so the musician doesn’t have to break the flow of sound by doing it themselves. He said he became just as nervous as those playing instruments on stage.
“A lot of skills are needed for the job. You have to make sure you don’t turn two pages at once and make sure you find the repeats in the music when you have to go back to the right spot.” Mr Titterton explained.
Being a page turner requires plenty of practice. Some pieces of music can go for 40 minutes and require up to 50 page turns, including back turns for repeat passages. Silent onstage communication is key, and each pianist has their own style of “nodding” to indicate a page turn which they need to practise with their page turner.
But like all performances, there are moments when things go wrong. “I was turning the page to get ready for the next page, but the draft wind from the turn caused the spare pages to fall off the stand,” Mr Titterton said, “Luckily I was able to catch them and put them back.”
Most page turners are piano students or up-and-coming concert pianists, although Ms Raspopova has once asked her husband to help her out on stage.
“My husband is the worst page turner,” she laughed. “He’s interested in the music, feeling every note, and I have to say: “Turn, turn!” “Robert is the best page turner I’ve had in my entire life.”
24. What should Titterton be able to do to be a page turner?
B. Play the piano.
C. Sing songs.
D. Fix the instruments.
25. Which of the following best describes Titterton’s job on stage?
26. What does Titterton need to practise?
A. Counting the pages.
B. Recognizing the “nodding”.
C. Catching falling objects.
D. Performing in his own style.
27. Why is Ms Raspopova’s husband “the worse page turner”?
A. He has very poor eyesight.
B. He ignores the audience.
C. He has no interest in music.
D. He forgets to do his job.
When the explorers first set foot upon the continent of North America, the skies and lands were alive with an astonishing variety of wildlife. Native Americans had taken care of these precious natural resources wisely. Unfortunately, it took the explorers and the settlers who followed only a few decades to decimate a large part of these resources. Millions of waterfowl (水禽) were killed at the hands of market hunters and a handful of overly ambitious sportsmen. Millions of acres of wetlands were dried to feed and house the ever-increasing populations, greatly reducing waterfowl habitat (栖息地).
In 1934, with the passage of the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act, an increasingly concerned nation took firm action to stop the destruction of migratory (迁徙的) waterfowl and the wetlands so vital to their survival. Under this Act, all waterfowl hunters 16 years of age and over must annually purchase and carry a Federal Duck Stamp. The very first Federal Duck Stamp was designed by J.N. “Ding” Darling, a political cartoonist from Des Moines, lowa, who at that time was appointed by President Franklin Roosevelt as Director of the Bureau of Biological Survey. Hunters willingly pay the stamp price to ensure the survival of our natural resources.
About 98 cents of every duck stamp dollar goes directly into the Migratory Bird Conservation Fund to purchase wetlands and wildlife habitat for inclusion into the National Wildlife Refuge System — a fact that ensures this land will be protected and available for all generations to come. Since 1934, better than half a billion dollars has gone into that Fund to purchase more than 5 million acres of habitat. Little wonder the Federal Duck Stamp Program has been called one of the most successful conservation programs ever initiated.
28. What was a cause of the waterfowl population decline in North America?
A. Loss of wetlands.
B. Popularity of water sports.
C. Pollution of rivers.
D. Arrival of other wild animals.
29. What does the underlined word “decimate” mean in the first paragraph?
30. What is a direct result of the Act passed in 1934?
A. The stamp price has gone down.
B. The migratory birds have flown away.
C. The hunters have stopped hunting.
D. The government has collected money.
31. Which of the following is a suitable title for the text?
A. The Federal Duck Stamp Story
B. The National Wildlife Refuge System
C. The Benefits of Saving Waterfowl
D. The History of Migratory Bird Hunting
Popularization has in some cases changed the original meaning of emotional (情感的) intelligence. Many people now misunderstand emotional intelligence as almost everything desirable in a person’s makeup that cannot be measured by an IQ test, such as character, motivation, confidence, mental stability, optimism and “people skills.” Research has shown that emotional skills may contribute to some of these qualities, but most of them move far beyond skill-based emotional intelligence.
We prefer to describe emotional intelligence as a specific set of skills that can be used for either good or bad purposes. The ability to accurately understand how others are feeling may be used by a doctor to find how best to help her patients, while a cheater might use it to control potential victims. Being emotionally intelligent does not necessarily make one a moral person.
Although popular beliefs regarding emotional intelligence run far ahead of what research can reasonably support, the overall effects of the publicity have been more beneficial than harmful. The most positive aspect of this popularization is a new and much-needed emphasis (重视) on emotion by employers, educators and others interested in promoting social well-being. The popularization of emotional intelligence has helped both the public and researchers re-evaluate the functionality of emotions and how they serve people adaptively in everyday life.
Although the continuing popular appeal of emotional intelligence is desirable, we hope that such attention will excite a greater interest in the scientific and scholarly study of emotion. It is our hope that in coming decades, advances in science will offer new perspectives (视角) from which to study how people manage their lives. Emotional intelligence, with its focus on both head and heart, may serve to point us in the right direction.
32. What is a common misunderstanding of emotional intelligence?
A. It can be measured by an IQ test.
B. It helps to exercise a person’s mind.
C. It includes a set of emotional skills.
D. It refers to a person’s positive qualities.
33. Why does the author mention “doctor” and “cheater” in paragraph 2?
A. To explain a rule.
B. To clarify a concept.
C. To present a fact.
D. To make a prediction.
34. What is the author’s attitude to the popularization of emotional intelligence?
35. What does the last paragraph mainly talk about concerning emotional intelligence?
A. Its appeal to the public.
B. Expectations for future studies.
C. Its practical application.
D. Scientists with new perspectives.
Things to Do in Yorkshire This Summer
Harrogate Music Festival
Since its birth, Harrogate Music Festival has gone from strength to strength. This year, we are celebrating our 50th anniversary. We begin on 1st June with Manchester Camerata and Nicola Benedetti, presenting an amazing programme of Mozart pieces.
Dates:1 June-31 July
Jodie’s Fitness Summer Classes
As the summer months roll in, our Georgian country estate makes the perfect setting for an outdoor fitness session. Come and work out with our qualified personal trainer, Jodie McGregor, on the grounds of the Middleton Lodge estate.
We will be holding a free taster session on 23rd May, at 10 am, to demonstrate the variety of effective and active exercises. There are eight spaces available for the taster session. Advance bookings are required(firstname.lastname@example.org)
Dates:23 May-11 July
Tickets: £7.50 per session
Felt Picture Making
Working from an inspirational picture, this workshop at Helmsley Arts Centre will teach you the techniques you will need to recreate your picture in wool.
We will also discuss the origins of felt (毛毡), what enables wool fibres to become felt and how the processes we use work.
Dates: 12 June-12 July
Tickets: £40 including materials
Figure It Out!-Playing with Math
A new exhibition in Halifax uses everyday activities to explain the hidden math principles we all use on a regular basis. Pack a bag, cut a cake, guess which juice container holds the most liquid, and much more. Discover how architects, product designers and scientists use similar skills in their work.
Dates:7 May-10 June
21.What should you do if you want to attend the taster session of Jodie’s fitness classes?
A. Join a fitness club.
B. Pay a registration fee.
C. Make a booking.
D. Hire a personal trainer.
22. How much is the ticket for Felt Picture Making?
23.Which of the following starts earliest?
A. Harrogate Music Festival.
B. Jodie’s Fitness Summer Classes.
C. Felt Picture Making.
D. Figure It Out!-Playing with Math.
I have worked as a keeper at the National Zoo for 11 years. Spot and Stripe are the first tiger cubs (幼兽) that have ever been born here. Globally, a third of Sumatran cubs in zoos don’t make it to adulthood, so I decided to give them round-the-clock care at home.
I’ve got two children - the younger one, Kynan, was extremely happy about the tigers arriving - but all of us really looked forward to being part of their lives and watching them grow. I wasn’t worried about bringing them into my home with my wife and kids. These were cubs. They weighed about 2.5 kg and were so small that there was absolutely no risk.
As they grew more mobile, we let them move freely around the house during the day, but when we were asleep we had to contain them in a large room, otherwise they’d get up to mischief. We’d come down in the morning to find they’d turned the room upside down, and left it looking like a zoo.
Things quickly got very intense due to the huge amount of energy required to look after them. There were some tough times and I just felt extremely tired. I was grateful that my family was there to help. We had to have a bit of a production line going, making up “tiger milk”, washing baby bottles, and cleaning the floors.
When Spot and Stripe were four months old, they were learning how to open doors and jump fences, and we knew it really was time for them to go. It was hard for us to finally part with them. For the first few days, Kynan was always a bit disappointed that the cubs weren’t there.
I’m not sad about it. I’m hands-on with them every day at the zoo, and I do look back very fondly on the time that we had them.
24. Why did the author bring the tiger cubs home?
A. To ensure their survival.
B. To observe their differences.
C. To teach them life skills.
D. To let them play with his kids.
25. What do the underlined words “get up to mischief’ mean in paragraph 3?
A. Behave badly.
B. Lose their way.
C. Sleep soundly.
D. Miss their mom.
26.What did the author think of raising the tiger cubs at home?
27.Why did the author decide to send Spot and Stripe back to the zoo?
A. They frightened the children.
B. They became difficult to contain.
C. They annoyed the neighbours.
D. They started fighting each other.
A British woman who won a S1 million prize after she was named the World’s Best Teacher will use the cash to bring inspirational figures into UK schools.
Andria Zafirakou, a north London secondary school teacher, said she wanted to bring about a classroom revolution (变革). “We are going to make a change,” she said. “I’ve started a project to promote the teaching of the arts in our schools."
The project results from the difficulties many schools have in getting artists of any sort - whether an up-and-coming local musician or a major movie star - into schools to work with and inspire children.
Zafirakou began the project at AlpertonCommunitySchool, her place of work for the past twelve years. “I’ve seen those magic moments when children are talking to someone they are inspired by - their eyes are shining and their faces light up,” she said. “We need artists, more than ever in our schools.”
Artist Michael Craig-Martin said: “Andria’s brilliant project to bring artists from all fields into direct contact with children is particularly welcome at a time when the arts are being downgraded in schools." It was a mistake to see the arts as unnecessary, he added.
Historian Sir Simon Schama is also a supporter of the project. He said that arts education in schools was not just an add-on. “It is absolutely necessary. The future depends on creativity and creativity depends on the young. What will remain of us when artificial intelligence takes over will be our creativity, and it is our creative spirit, our visionary sense of freshness, that has been our strength for centuries.”
28.What will Zafirakou do with her prize money?
A. Make a movie.
B. Build new schools.
C. Run a project.
D. Help local musicians.
29.What does Craig-Martin think of the teaching of the arts in UK schools?
A. It is particularly difficult.
B. It increases artists’ income.
C. It opens children’s mind.
D. It deserves greater attention.
30.What should be stressed in school education according to Schama?
A. Moral principles.
B. Interpersonal skills.
C. Creative abilities.
D. Positive worldviews.
31.Which of the following is a suitable title for the text?
A. Bring Artists to Schools
B. When Historians Meet Artists
C. Arts Education in Britain
D. The World’s Best Arts Teacher
答案：28—31 CAC A
An Australian professor is developing a robot to monitor the health of grazing cattle, a development that could bring big changes to a profession that’s relied largely on a low-tech approach for decades but is facing a labor shortage.
Salah Sukkarieh, a professor at the University of Sydney, sees robots as necessary given how cattlemen are aging. He is building a four-wheeled robot that will run on solar and electric power. It will use cameras and sensors to monitor the animals. A computer system will analyze the video to determine whether a cow is sick. Radio tags (标签) on the animals will measure temperature changes. The quality of grassland will be tracked by monitoring the shape, color and texture (质地) of grass. That way, cattlemen will know whether they need to move their cattle to another field for nutrition purposes.
Machines have largely taken over planting, watering and harvesting crops such as corn and wheat, but the monitoring of cattle has gone through fewer changes.
For Texas cattleman Pete Bonds, it’s increasingly difficult to find workers interested in watching cattle. But Bonds doesn’t believe a robot is right for the job. Years of experience in the industry—and failed attempts to use technology—have convinced him that the best way to check cattle is with a man on a horse. Bonds, who bought his first cattle almost 50 years ago, still has each of his cowboys inspect 300 or 400 cattle daily and look for signs that an animal is getting sick.
Other cattlemen see more promise in robots. Michael Kelsey, vice president of the Oklahoma Cattlemen’s Association, said a robot could be extremely useful given rising concerns about cattle theft. Cattle tend to be kept in remote places and their value has risen, making them appealing targets.
32.What is a problem with the cattle-raising industry?
A. Soil pollution.
B. Lack of workers.
C. Aging machines.
D. Low profitability.
33. What will Sukkarieh’s robot be able to do?
A. Monitor the quality of grass.
B. Cure the diseased cattle.
C. Move cattle to another field.
D. Predict weather changes.
34.Why does Pete Bonds still hire cowboys to watch cattle?
A. He wants to help them earn a living.
B. He thinks men can do the job better.
C. He is inexperienced in using robots.
D. He enjoys the traditional way of life.
35. How may robots help with cattle watching according to Michael Kelsey?
A. Increase the value of cattle.
B. Bring down the cost of labor.
C. Make the job more appealing.
D. Keep cattle from being stolen.
The Biggest Stadiums in the World
People have been pouring into stadiums since the days of ancient Greece. In around 8 A.D., the Romans built the Colosseum, which remains the world’s best known stadium and continues to inform contemporary design. Rome’s Colosseum was 157 feet tall and had 80 entrances, seating 50,000 people. However, that was small fry compared with the city’s Circus Maximus, which accommodated around 250,000 people.
These days, safety regulations—not to mention the modern sports fan’s desire for a good view and a comfortable seat—tend to keep stadium capacities (容量) slightly lower. Even soccer fans tend to have a seat each; gone are the days of thousands standing to watch the match.
For the biggest stadiums in the world, we have used data supplied by the World Atlas list so far, which ranks them by their stated permanent capacity, as well as updated information from official stadium websites.
All these stadiums are still functional, still open and still hosting the biggest events in world sport.
•Rungrado 1st of May Stadium, Pyongyang, D.P.R.Korea. Capacity: 150,000. Opened: May 1, 1989.
•Michigan Stadium, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S. Capacity: 107,601. Opened: October 1, 1927.
•Beaver Stadium, State College, Pennsylvania, U.S. Capacity: 106,572. Opened: September 17, 1960.
•Ohio Stadium, Columbus, Ohio, U.S. Capacity: 104,944. Opened: October 7, 1922.
•Kyle Field, College Station, Texas, U.S. Capacity: 102,512. Opened: September 24,1927.
21. How many people could the Circus Maximus hold?
C. About 150,000.
D. About 250,000.
22. Of the following stadiums, which is the oldest?
A. Michigan Stadium.
B. Beaver Stadium.
C. Ohio Stadium.
D. Kyle Field.
23. What do the listed stadiums have in common?
A. They host big games.
B. They have become tourist attractions.
C. They were built by Americans.
D. They are favored by architects.
When almost everyone has a mobile phone, why are more than half of Australian homes still paying for a landline (座机)?
These days you’d be hard pressed to find anyone in Australia over the age of 15 who doesn’t own a mobile phone. In fact plenty of younger kids have one in their pocket. Practically everyone can make and receive calls anywhere, anytime.
Still, 55 percent of Australians have a landline phone at home and only just over a quarter (29%) rely only on their smartphones, according to a survey (调查). Of those Australians who still have a landline, a third concede that it’s not really necessary and they’re keeping it as a security blanket—19 percent say they never use it while a further 13 percent keep it in case of emergencies. I think my home falls into that category.
More than half of Australian homes are still choosing to stick with their home phone. Age is naturally a factor (因素)—only 58 percent of Generation Ys still use landlines now and then, compared to 84 percent of Baby Boomers who’ve perhaps had the same home number for 50 years. Age isn’t the only factor; I’d say it’s also to do with the makeup of your household.
Generation Xers with young families, like my wife and I, can still find it convenient to have a home phone rather than providing a mobile phone for every family member. That said, to be honest the only people who ever ring our home phone are our Baby Boomers parents, to the point where we play a game and guess who is calling before we pick up the phone (using Caller ID would take the fun out of it).
How attached are you to your landline? How long until they go the way of gas street lamps and morning milk deliveries?
24. What does paragraph 2 mainly tell us about mobile phones?
A. Their target users.
B. Their wide popularity.
C. Their major functions.
D. Their complex design.
25. What does the underlined word “concede” in paragraph 3 mean?
26. What can we say about Baby Boomers?
A. They like smartphone games.
B. They enjoy guessing callers’ identity.
C. They keep using landline phones.
D. They are attached to their family.
27. What can be inferred about the landline from the last paragraph?
A. It remains a family necessity.
B. It will fall out of use some day.
C. It may increase daily expenses.
D. It is as important as the gas light.
You’ve heard that plastic is polluting the oceans—between 4.8 and 12.7 million tonnes enter ocean ecosystems every year. But does one plastic straw or cup really make a difference? Artist Benjamin Von Wong wants you to know that it does. He builds massive sculptures out of plastic garbage, forcing viewers to re-examine their relationship to single-use plastic products.
At the beginning of the year, the artist built a piece called “Strawpocalypse,” a pair of 10-foot-tall plastic waves, frozen mid-crash. Made of 168,000 plastic straws collected from several volunteer beach cleanups, the sculpture made its first appearance at the Estella Place shopping center in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Just 9% of global plastic waste is recycled. Plastic straws are by no means the biggest source (来源) of plastic pollution, but they’ve recently come under fire because most people don’t need them to drink with and, because of their small size and weight, they cannot be recycled. Every straw that’s part of Von Wong’s artwork likely came from a drink that someone used for only a few minutes. Once the drink is gone, the straw will take centuries to disappear.
In a piece from 2018, Von Wong wanted to illustrate (说明) a specific statistic: Every 60 seconds, a truckload’s worth of plastic enters the ocean. For this work, titled “Truckload of Plastic,” Von Wong and a group of volunteers collected more than 10,000 pieces of plastic, which were then tied together to look like they’d been dumped (倾倒) from a truck all at once.
Von Wong hopes that his work will also help pressure big companies to reduce their plastic footprint.
28. What are Von Wong’s artworks intended for?
A. Beautifying the city he lives in.
B. Introducing eco-friendly products.
C. Drawing public attention to plastic waste.
D. Reducing garbage on the beach.
29. Why does the author discuss plastic straws in paragraph 3?
A. To show the difficulty of their recycling.
B. To explain why they are useful.
C. To voice his views on modern art.
D. To find a substitute for them.
30. What effect would “Truckload of Plastic” have on viewers?
31. Which of the following can be the best title for the text?
A. Artists’ Opinions on Plastic Safety
B. Media Interest in Contemporary Art
C. Responsibility Demanded of Big Companies
D. Ocean Plastics Transformed into Sculptures
During an interview for one of my books, my interviewer said something I still think about often. Annoyed by the level of distraction (干扰) in his open office, he said, “That’s why I have a membership at the coworking space across the street—so I can focus.” His comment struck me as strange. After all, coworking spaces also typically use an open office layout (布局). But I recently came across a study that shows why his approach works.
The researchers examined various levels of noise on participants as they completed tests of creative thinking. They were randomly divided into four groups and exposed to various noise levels in the background, from total silence to 50 decibels (分贝), 70 decibels, and 85 decibels. The differences between most of the groups were statistically insignificant; however, the participants in the 70 decibels group—those exposed to a level of noise similar to background chatter in a coffee shop—significantly outperformed the other groups. Since the effects were small, this may suggest that our creative thinking does not differ that much in response to total silence and 85 decibels of background noise.
But since the results at 70 decibels were significant, the study also suggests that the right level of background noise—not too loud and not total silence—may actually improve one’s creative thinking ability. The right level of background noise may interrupt our normal patterns of thinking just enough to allow our imaginations to wander, without making it impossible to focus. This kind of “distracted focus” appears to be the best state for working on creative tasks.
So why do so many of us hate our open offices? The problem may be that, in our offices, we can’t stop ourselves from getting drawn into others’ conversations while we’re trying to focus. Indeed, the researchers found that face-to-face interactions and conversations affect the creative process, and yet a coworking space or a coffee shop provides a certain level of noise while also providing freedom from interruptions.
32. Why does the interviewer prefer a coworking space?
A. It helps him concentrate.
B. It blocks out background noise.
C. It has a pleasant atmosphere.
D. It encourages face-to-face interactions.
33. Which level of background noise may promote creative thinking ability?
A. Total silence.
B. 50 decibels.
C. 70 decibels.
D. 85 decibels.
34. What makes an open office unwelcome to many people?
A. Personal privacy unprotected.
B. Limited working space.
C. Restrictions on group discussion.
D. Constant interruptions.
35. What can we infer about the author from the text?
A. He’s a news reporter.
B. He’s an office manager.
C. He’s a professional designer.
D. He’s a published writer.
Take a view, the Landscape (风景) Photographer of the Year Award, was the idea of Charlie Waite, one of today’s most respected landscape photographers. Each year, the high standard of entries has shown that the Awards are the perfect platform to showcase the very best photography of the British landscape. Take a view is a desirable annual competition for photographers from all corners of the UK and beyond.
Mike Shepherd (2011)
Skiddaw in Winter
It was an extremely cold winter’s evening and freezing fog hung in the air. I climbed to the top of a small rise and realised that the mist was little more than a few feet deep, and though it was only a short climb, I found myself completely above it and looking at a wonderfully clear view of Skiddaw with the sun setting in the west. I used classical techniques, translated from my college days spent in the darkroom into Photoshop, to achieve the black-and-white image (图像).
Timothy Smith (2014)
I was back in my home town of Macclesfield to take some winter images. Walking up a path through the forest towards Shutlingsloe, a local high point, I came across a small clearing and immediately noticed the dead yellow grasses set against the fresh snow. The small pine added to the interest and I placed it centrally to take the view from the foreground right through into the forest.
1. Who would most probably enter for Take a view?
2. What do the works by Shepherd and Smith have in common?
A. They are winter images.
B. They are in black and white.
C. They show mountainous scenes.
D. They focus on snow-covered forests.
3. Where can the text be found?
A. In a history book.
B. In a novel.
C. In an art magazine.
D. In a biography.
Port Lympne Reserve, which runs a breeding (繁育) programme, has welcomed the arrival of a rare black rhino calf (犀牛幼崽). When the tiny creature arrived on January 31, she became the 40th black rhino to be born at the reserve. And officials at Port Lympne were delighted with the new arrival, especially as black rhinos are known for being difficult to breed in captivity (圈养).
Paul Beer, head of rhino section at Port Lympne, said: “Obviously we’re all absolutely delighted to welcome another calf to our black rhino family. She’s healthy, strong and already eager to play and explore. Her mother, Solio, is a first-time mum and she is doing a fantastic job. It’s still a little too cold for them to go out into the open, but as soon as the weather warms up, I have no doubt that the little one will be out and about exploring and playing every day.”
The adorable female calf is the second black rhino born this year at the reserve, but it is too early to tell if the calves will make good candidates to be returned to protected areas of the wild. The first rhino to be born at Port Lympne arrived on January 5 to first-time mother Kisima and weighed about 32kg. His mother, grandmother and great grandmother were all born at the reserve and still live there.
According to the World Wildlife Fund, the global black rhino population has dropped as low as 5500, giving the rhinos a “critically endangered” status.
4. Which of the following best describes the breeding programme?
5. What does Paul Beer say about the new-born rhino?
A. She loves staying with her mother.
B. She dislikes outdoor activities.
C. She is in good condition.
D. She is sensitive to heat.
6. What similar experience do Solio and Kisima have?
A. They had their first born in January.
B. They enjoyed exploring new places.
C. They lived with their grandmothers.
D. They were brought to the reserve young.
7. What can be inferred about Port Lympne Reserve?
A. The rhino section will be open to the public.
B. It aims to control the number of the animals.
C. It will continue to work with the World Wildlife Fund.
D. Some of its rhinos may be sent to the protected wild areas.
When I was 9, we packed up our home in Los Angeles and arrived at Heathrow, London on a gray January morning. Everyone in the family settled quickly into the city except me. Without my beloved beaches and endless blue-sky days, I felt at a loss and out of place. Until I made a discovery.
Southbank, at an eastern bend in the Thames, is the center of British skateboarding, where the continuous crashing of skateboards left your head ringing. I loved it. I soon made friends with the local skaters. We spoke our own language. And my favorite: Safe. Safe meant cool. It meant hello. It meant don’t worry about it. Once, when trying a certain trick on the beam (横杆), I fell onto the stones, damaging a nerve in my hand, and Toby came over, helping me up: Safe, man. Safe. A few minutes later, when I landed the trick, my friends beat their boards loud, shouting:“Safe! Safe! Safe!”And that’s what mattered—landing tricks, being a good skater.
When I was 15, my family moved to Washington. I tried skateboarding there, but the locals were far less welcoming. Within a couple of years, I’d given it up.
When I returned to London in 2004, I found myself wandering down to Southbank, spending hours there. I’ve traveled back several times since, most recently this past spring. The day was cold but clear；tourists and Londoners stopped to watch the skaters. Weaving (穿梭) among the kids who rushed by on their boards, I found my way to the beam. Then a rail-thin teenager, in a baggy white T-shirt, skidded (滑) up to the beam. He sat next to me. He seemed not to notice the man next to him. But soon I caught a few of his glances. “I was a local here 20 years ago,” I told him. Then, slowly, he began to nod his head. “Safe, man. Safe.”
“Yeah,” I said. “Safe.”
8. What can we learn about the author soon after he moved to London?
A. He felt disappointed.
B. He gave up his hobby.
C. He liked the weather there.
D. He had disagreements with his family.
9. What do the underlined words “Safe! Safe! Safe!” probably mean?
A. Be careful!
B. Well done!
C. No way!
D. Don’t worry!
10. Why did the author like to spend time in Southbank when he returned to London?
A. To join the skateboarding.
B. To make new friends.
C. To learn more tricks.
D. To relive his childhood days.
11. What message does the author seem to convey in the text?
A. Children should learn a second language.
B. Sport is necessary for children’s health.
C. Children need a sense of belonging.
D. Seeing the world is a must for children.
Who is a genius? This question has greatly interested humankind for centuries.
Let’s state clearly: Einstein was a genius. His face is almost the international symbol for genius. But we want to go beyond one man and explore the nature of genius itself. Why is it that some people are so much more intelligent or creative than the rest of us? And who are they?
In the sciences and arts, those praised as geniuses were most often white men, of European origin. Perhaps this is not a surprise. It’s said that history is written by the victors, and those victors set the standards for admission to the genius club. When contributions were made by geniuses outside the club—women, or people of a different color or belief—they were unacknowledged and rejected by others.
A study recently published by Science found that as young as age six, girls are less likely than boys to say that members of their gender (性别) are “really, really smart”. Even worse, the study found that girls act on that belief: Around age six they start to avoid activities said to be for children who are “really, really smart.” Can our planet afford to have any great thinkers become discouraged and give up? It doesn’t take a genius to know the answer: absolutely not.
Here’s the good news. In a wired world with constant global communication, we’re all positioned to see flashes of genius wherever they appear. And the more we look, the more we will see that social factors (因素) like gender, race, and class do not determine the appearance of genius. As a writer says, future geniuses come from those with “intelligence, creativity, perseverance (毅力), and simple good fortune, who are able to change the world.”
12. What does the author think of victors’ standards for joining the genius club?
A. They’re unfair.
B. They’re conservative.
C. They’re objective.
D. They’re strict.
13. What can we infer about girls from the study in Science?
A. They think themselves smart.
B. They look up to great thinkers.
C. They see gender differences earlier than boys.
D. They are likely to be influenced by social beliefs.
14. Why are more geniuses known to the public?
A. Improved global communication.
B. Less discrimination against women.
C. Acceptance of victors’ concepts.
D. Changes in people’s social positions.
15. What is the best title for the text?
A. Geniuses Think Alike
B. Genius Takes Many Forms
C. Genius and Intelligence
D. Genius and Luck
Write a poem about how courage, determination, and strength have helped you face challenges in your life.
3 Grand Prizes: Trip to Washington, D. C. for each of three winners, a parent and one other person of the winner’s choice. Trip includes round-trip air tickets, hotel stay for two nights, and tours of the National Air and Space Museum and the office of National Geographic World.
6 First Prizes: The book Sky Pioneer: A Photo biography of Amelia Earhart signed by author Corinne Szabo and pilot Linda Finch.
50 Honorable Mentions: Judges will choose up to 50 honorable mention winners, who will each receive a T-shirt in memory of Earhart’s final flight.
Follow all rules carefully to prevent disqualification.
■Write a poem using 100 words or fewer. Your poem can be any format, any number of lines.
■Write by hand or type on a single sheet of paper. You may use both the front and back of the paper.
■On the same sheet of paper, write or type your name, address, telephone number, and birth date.
■Mail your entry to us by October 31 this year.
1. How many people can each grand prize winner take on the free trip?
2. What will each of the honorable mention winners get?
A. A plane ticket.
B. A book by Corinne Szabo.
C. A special T-shirt.
D. A photo of Amelia Earhart.
3. Which of the following will result in disqualification?
A. Typing your poem out.
B. Writing a poem of 120 words.
C. Using both sides of the paper.
D. Mailing your entry on October 30.
Jennifer Mauer has needed more willpower than the typical college student to pursue her goal of earning a nursing degree. That willpower bore fruit when Jennifer graduated from University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire and became the first in her large family to earn a bachelor’s degree.
Mauer, of Edgar, Wisconsin, grew up on a farm in a family of 10 children. Her dad worked at a job away from the farm, and her mother ran the farm with the kids. After high school, Jennifer attended a local technical college, working to pay her tuition (学费), because there was no extra money set aside for a college education. After graduation, she worked to help her sisters and brothers pay for their schooling.
Jennifer now is married and has three children of her own. She decided to go back to college to advance her career and to be able to better support her family while doing something she loves: nursing. She chose the UW-Eau Claire program at Ministry Saint Joseph’s Hospital in Marshfield because she was able to pursue her four-year degree close to home. She could drive to class and be home in the evening to help with her kids. Jennifer received great support from her family as she worked to earn her degree: Her husband worked two jobs to cover the bills, and her 68-year-old mother helped take care of the children at times.
Through it all, she remained in good academic standing and graduated with honors. Jennifer sacrificed (牺牲) to achieve her goal, giving up many nights with her kids and missing important events to study. “Some nights my heart was breaking to have to pick between my kids and studying for exams or papers,” she says. However, her children have learned an important lesson witnessing their mother earn her degree. Jennifer is a first-generation graduate and an inspiration to her family—and that’s pretty powerful.
4. What did Jennifer do after high school?
A. She helped her dad with his work.
B. She ran the family farm on her own.
C. She supported herself through college.
D. She taught her sisters and brothers at home.
5. Why did Jennifer choose the program at Ministry Saint Joseph’s Hospital in Marshfield?
A. To take care of her kids easily.
B. To learn from the best nurses.
C. To save money for her parents.
D. To find a well-paid job there.
6. What did Jennifer sacrifice to achieve her goal?
A. Her health.
B. Her time with family.
C. Her reputation.
D. Her chance of promotion.
7. What can we learn from Jennifer’s story?
A. Time is money.
B. Love breaks down barriers.
C. Hard work pays off.
D. Education is the key to success.
In the mid-1990s, Tom Bissell taught English as a volunteer in Uzbekistan. He left after seven months, physically broken and having lost his mind. A few years later, still attracted to the country, he returned to Uzbekistan to write an article about the disappearance of the Aral Sea.
His visit, however, ended up involving a lot more than that. Hence this book, Chasing the Sea: Lost Among the Ghosts of Empire in Central Asia, which talks about a road trip from Tashkent to Karakalpakstan, where millions of lives have been destroyed by the slow drying up of the sea. It is the story of an American travelling to a strange land, and of the people he meets on his way: Rustam, his translator, a lovely 24-year-old who picked up his colorful English in California, Oleg and Natasha, his hosts in Tashkent, and a string of foreign aid workers.
This is a quick look at life in Uzbekistan, made of friendliness and warmth, but also its darker side of society. In Samarkand, Mr Bissell admires the architectural wonders, while on his way to Bukhara he gets a taste of police methods when suspected of drug dealing. In Ferghana, he attends a mountain funeral (葬礼) followed by a strange drinking party. And in Karakalpakstan, he is saddened by the dust storms, diseases and fishing boats stuck miles from the sea.
Mr Bissell skillfully organizes historical insights and cultural references, making his tale a well-rounded picture of Uzbekistan, seen from Western eyes. His judgment and references are decidedly American, as well as his delicate stomach. As the author explains, this is neither a travel nor a history book, or even a piece of reportage. Whatever it is, the result is a fine and vivid description of the purest of Central Asian traditions.
8. What made Mr Bissell return to Uzbekistan?
A. His friends’ invitation.
B. His interest in the country.
C. His love for teaching.
D. His desire to regain health.
9. What does the underlined word “that” in paragraph 2 refer to?
A. Developing a serious mental disease.
B. Taking a guided tour in Central Asia.
C. Working as a volunteer in Uzbekistan.
D. Writing an article about the Aral Sea.
10. Which of the following best describes Mr Bissell’s road trip in Uzbekistan?
11. What is the purpose of this text?
A. To introduce a book.
B. To explain a cultural phenomenon.
C. To remember a writer.
D. To recommend a travel destination.
According to a recent study in the Journal of Consumer Research, both the size and consumption habits of our eating companions can influence our food intake. And contrary to existing research that says you should avoid eating with heavier people who order large portions (份), it’s the beanpoles with big appetites you really need to avoid.
To test the effect of social influence on eating habits, the researchers conducted two experiments. In the first, 95 undergraduate women were individually invited into a lab to ostensibly (表面上) participate in a study about movie viewership. Before the film began, each woman was asked to help herself to a snack. An actor hired by the researchers grabbed her food first. In her natural state, the actor weighed 105 pounds. But in half the cases she wore a specially designed fat suit which increased her weight to 180 pounds.
Both the fat and thin versions of the actor took a large amount of food. The participants followed suit, taking more food than they normally would have. However, they took significantly more when the actor was thin.
For the second test, in one case the thin actor took two pieces of candy from the snack bowls. In the other case, she took 30 pieces. The results were similar to the first test: the participants followed suit but took significantly more candy when the thin actor took 30 pieces.
The tests show that the social environment is extremely influential when we’re making decisions. If this fellow participant is going to eat more, so will I. Call it the “I’ll have what she’s having” effect. However, we’ll adjust the influence. If an overweight person is having a large portion, I’ll hold back a bit because I see the results of his eating habits. But if a thin person eats a lot, I’ll follow suit. If he can eat much and keep slim, why can’t I?
12. What is the recent study mainly about?
A. Food safety.
B. Movie viewership.
C. Consumer demand.
D. Eating behavior.
13. What does the underlined word “beanpoles” in paragraph 1 refer to?
A. Big eaters.
B. Overweight persons.
C. Picky eaters.
D. Tall thin persons.
14. Why did the researchers hire the actor?
A. To see how she would affect the participants.
B. To test if the participants could recognize her.
C. To find out what she would do in the two tests.
D. To study why she could keep her weight down.
15. On what basis do we “adjust the influence” according to the last paragraph?
A. How hungry we are.
B. How slim we want to be.
C. How we perceive others.
D. How we feel about the food.
Pali Overnight Adventures offers children and teens exciting experiences this summer. From broadcasting to street art, these are just 4 of the 17 highly unique camps being offered.
Become the next star reporter, news writer, director or producer. While running every aspect of our own news station, kids and their fellow campers will create and host a broadcast airing each night at dinner for the entire camp. Every night it goes on the web, keeping parents and the world informed of the happenings at Pali.
Secret Agent Camp
In the movie Mission Impossible, Tom Cruise made being a secret agent seem like the coolest job ever. Campers who sign up for the 2-week secret agent camp can get to know about the life of real secret agents by learning strategies and military skills on the paintball field.
If your child enjoys being in the kitchen, then the culinary camp is definitely the right fit. Campers learn technical skills of roasting, frying and cutting, as well as some recipes that they can take home and share with their families.
Street Art Camp
This camp takes creative license to an entirely new level. Campers will share their colorful ideas and imagination with each other and work together to visualize, sketch and paint with non-traditional techniques to create the coolest mural (壁画) which will be displayed in public for all to see.
21. How many camps does Pali Overnight Adventures offer this summer?
22. What will campers do at the Broadcasting Camp?
A. Create a website.
B. Run a news station.
C. Meet a star reporter.
D. Hold a dinner party.
23. Which camp will attract children who are interested in cooking?
A. Broadcasting Camp.
B. Secret Agent Camp.
C. Culinary Camp.
D. Street Art Camp.
The end of the school year was in sight and spirits were high. I was back teaching after an absence of 15 years, dealing with the various kinds of “forbidden fruit” that come out of book bags. Now was the spring of the water pistol(手枪).
I decided to think up a method of dealing with forbidden fruit.
“Please bring that pistol to me,” I said.”I’m going to put it in my Grandma’s Box.”
“What’s that?” they asked.
“It’s a large wooden chest full of toys for my grandchildren,” I replied.
“You don’t have grandchildren,” someone said.
“I don’t now,” I replied. “But someday I will. When I do, my box will be full of wonderful things for them.”
My imaginary Grandma’s Box worked like magic that spring, and later. Sometimes students would ask me to describe all the things I had in it. Then I would try to remember the different possessions I supposedly had taken away —sine I seldom actually kept them. Usually the offender would appear at the end of the day, and I would return the belonging.
The years went by, and my first grandchild Gordon was born. I shared my joy with that year’s class. Then someone said,” Now you can use your Grandma’s Box.” From then on, instead of coming to ask their possessions back, the students would say. “That’s okay. Put it in your Grandma’s Box for Gordon.”
I loved talking about the imaginary box, not only with my students but also with my own children. They enjoyed hearing about all the forbidden fruit I had collected. Then one Christmas I received a surprise gift—a large, beautifully made wooden chest. My son Bruce had made my Grandma’s Box a reality.
24. What was the author’s purpose in having the conversation with the students?
A. To collect the water pistol.
B. To talk about her grandchildren.
C. To recommend some toys.
D. To explain her teaching method.
25. What do the underlined words “the offender” in paragraph 8 refer to?
A. The student’s parent.
B. The maker of the Grandma’s Box.
C. The author’s grandchild.
D. The owner of the forbidden fruit.
26. What did the students do after they learned about the birth of Gordon?
A. They went to play with the baby.
B. They asked to see the Grandma’s Box.
C. They made a present for Gordon.
D. They stopped asking their toys back.
27. What can we infer about the author?
A. She enjoys telling jokes.
B. She is a strict and smart teacher.
C. She loves doing woodwork.
D. She is a responsible grandmother.
In May 1987 the Golden Gate Bridge had a 50th birthday party. The bridge was closed to motor traffic so people could enjoy a walk across it. Organizers expected perhaps 50,000 people to show up. Instead, as many as 800,000 crowded the roads to the bridge. By the time 250,000 were on the bridge, engineers noticed something terrible: the roadway was flattening under what turned out to be the heaviest load it had ever been asked to carry. Worse, it was beginning to sway (晃动). The authorities closed access to the bridge and tens of thousands of people made their way back to land. A disaster was avoided.
The story is one of scores in To Forgive Design: Understanding Failure, a book that is at once a love letter to engineering and a paean (赞歌) to its breakdowns. Its author, Dr. Henry Petroski, has long been writing about disasters. In this book he includes the loss of the space shuttles (航天飞机) Challenger and Columbia, and the sinking of the Titanic.
Though he acknowledges that engineering works can fail because the person who thought them up or engineered them simply got things wrong, in this book Dr. Petroski widens his view to consider the larger context in which such failures occur. Sometimes devices fail because a good design is constructed with low quality materials incompetently applied. Or perhaps a design works so well it is adopted elsewhere again and again, with seemingly harmless improvements, until, suddenly, it does not work at all anymore.
Readers will encounter not only stories they have heard before, but some new stories and a moving discussion of the responsibility of the engineer to the public and the ways young engineers can be helped to grasp them.
“Success is success but that is all that it is,” Dr. Petroski writes. It is failure that brings improvement.
28. What happened to the Golden Gate Bridge on its 50th birthday?
A. It carried more weight than it could.
B. It swayed violently in a strong wind.
C. Its roadway was damaged by vehicles.
D. Its access was blocked by many people.
29. Which of the following is Dr. Ptroski’s idea according to paragraph 3?
A. No design is well received everywhere.
B. Construction is more important than design.
C. Not all disasters are caused by engineering design.
D. Improvements on engineering works are necessary.
30. What does the last paragraph suggest?
A. Failure can lead to progress.
B. Success results in overconfidence.
C. Failure should be avoided.
D. Success comes from joint efforts.
31. What is the text?
A. A news report.
B. A short story.
C. A book review.
D. A research article.
Rainforests are home to a rich variety of medicinal plants, food, birds and animals. Can you believe that a single bush (灌木丛) in the Amazon may have more species of ants than the whole of Britain! About 480 varieties of trees may be found in just one hectare of rainforest.
Rainforests are the lungs of the planet—storing vast quantities of carbon dioxide and producing a significant amount of the world’s oxygen. Rainforests have their own perfect system for ensuring their own survival; the tall trees make a canopy (树冠层) of branches and leaves which protect themselves, smaller plants, and the forest animals from heavy rain, intense dry heat from the sun and strong winds.
Amazingly, the trees grow in such a way that their leaves and branches, although close together, never actually touch those of another tree. Scientists think this is the plants’ way to prevent the spread of any tree diseases and make life more difficult for leaf-eating insects like caterpillars. To survive in the forest, animals must climb, jump or fly across the gaps. The ground floor of the forest is not all tangled leaves and bushes, like in films, but is actually fairly clear. It is where dead leaves turn into food for the trees and other forest life.
They are not called rainforests for nothing! Rainforests can generate 75% of their own rain. At least 80 inches of rain a year is normal—and in some areas there may be as much as 430 inches of rain annually. This is real rain—your umbrella may protect you in a shower, but it won’t keep you dry if there is a full rainstorm. In just two hours, streams can rise ten to twenty feet. The humidity (湿气) of large rainforests contributes to the formation of rainclouds that may travel to other countries in need of rain.
32. What can we learn about rainforests from the first paragraph?
A. They produce oxygen.
B. They cover a vast area.
C. They are well managed.
D. They are rich in wildlife.
33. Which of the following contributes most to the survival of rainforests?
A. Heavy rains.
B. Big trees.
C. Small plants.
D. Forest animals.
34. Why do the leaves and branches of different trees avoid touching each other?
A. For more sunlight.
B. For more growing space.
C. For self-protection.
D. For the detection of insects.
35. What can be a suitable title for the text?
A. Life-Giving Rainforests
B. The Law of the Jungle
C. Animals in the Amazon
D. Weather in Rainforests
All customers travelling on TransLink services must be in possession of a valid ticket before boarding. For ticket information, please ask at your local station or call 131230.
While Queensland Rail makes every effort to ensure trains run as scheduled, there can be no guarantee of connections between trains or between train services and bus services.
Lost property (失物招领)
Call Lost Property on 131617 during business hours for items lost on Queensland Rail services. The lost property office is open Monday to Friday 7:30 am to 5:00 pm and is located （位于） at Roma Street station.
On public holidays, generally a Sunday timetable operates. On certain major event days, i.e.
Australia Day, Anzac Day, sporting and cultural days, special additional services may operate.
Christmas Day services operate to a Christmas Day timetable. Before travel please visit translink. com. au or call TransLink on 131230 anytime.
Customers using mobility devices
Many stations have wheelchair access from the car park or entrance to the station platforms. For assistance, please call Queensland Rail on 131617.
Guardian trains (outbound)
21. What would you do to get ticket information?
A. Call 13 16 17.
B. Visit translink. com. au.
C. Ask at the local station.
D. Check the train schedule.
22. At which station can you find the lost property office?
B. Roma Street.
C. Varsity Lakes.
D. Fortitude Valley.
23. Which train would you take if you go from Central to Varsity Lakes?
A. 6:42 pm.
B. 7:29 pm.
C. 8:57 pm.
D. 11:02 pm.
Returning to a book you’ve read many times can feel like drinks with an old friend. There’s a welcome familiarity—but also sometimes a slight suspicion that time has changed you both, and thus the relationship. But books don’t change, people do. And that’s what makes the act of rereading so rich and transformative.
The beauty of rereading lies in the idea that our bond with the work is based on our present mental register. It’s true, the older I get, the more I feel time has wings. But with reading, it’s all about the present. It’s about the now and what one contributes to the now, because reading is a give and take between author and reader. Each has to pull their own weight.
There are three books I reread annually. The first, which I take to reading every spring, is Ernest Hemingway’s A Moveable Feast. Published in 1964, it’s his classic memoir of 1920s Paris. The language is almost intoxicating (令人陶醉的), an aging writer looking back on an ambitious yet simpler time. Another is Annie Dillard’s Holy the Firm, her poetic 1975 ramble (随笔) about everything and nothing. The third book is Julio Cortázar’s Save Twilight: Selected Poems, because poetry. And because Cortázar.
While I tend to buy a lot of books, these three were given to me as gifts, which might add to the meaning I attach to them. But I imagine that, while money is indeed wonderful and necessary, rereading an author’s work is the highest currency a reader can pay them. The best books are the ones that open further as time passes. But remember, it’s you that has to grow and read and reread in order to better understand your friends.
24. Why does the author like rereading?
A. It evaluates the writer-reader relationship.
B. It’s a window to a whole new world.
C. It’s a substitute for drinking with a friend.
D. It extends the understanding of oneself.
25. What do we know about the book “A Moveable Feast”?
A. It’s a brief account of a trip.
B. It’s about Hemingway’s life as a young man.
C. It’s a record of a historic event.
D. It’s about Hemingway’s friends in Paris.
26. What does the underlined word “currency” in paragraph 4 refer to?
D. Face value.
27. What can we infer about the author from the text?
A. He loves poetry.
B. He’s an editor.
C. He’s very ambitious.
D. He teaches reading.
Race walking shares many fitness benefits with running, research shows, while most likely contributing to fewer injuries. It does, however, have its own problem.
Race walkers are conditioned athletes. The longest track and field event at the Summer Olympics is the 50-kilometer race walk, which is about five miles longer than the marathon. But the sport’s rules require that a race walker’s knees stay straight through most of the leg swing and one foot remain in contact (接触) with the ground at all times. It’s this strange form that makes race walking such an attractive activity, however, says Jaclyn Norberg, an assistant professor of exercise science at Salem State University in Salem, Mass.
Like running, race walking is physically demanding, she says. According to most calculations, race walkers moving at a pace of six miles per hour would burn about 800 calories (卡路里) per hour, which is approximately twice as many as they would burn walking, although fewer than running, which would probably burn about 1,000 or more calories per hour.
However, race walking does not pound the body as much as running does, Dr. Norberg says. According to her research, runners hit the ground with as much as four times their body weight per step, while race walkers, who do not leave the ground, create only about 1. 4 times their body weight with each step.
As a result, she says, some of the injuries associated with running, such as runner’s knee, are uncommon among race walkers. But the sport’s strange form does place considerable stress on the ankles and hips, so people with a history of such injuries might want to be cautious in adopting the sport. In fact, anyone wishing to try race walking should probably first consult a coach or experienced racer to learn proper technique, she says. It takes some practice.
28. Why are race walkers conditioned athletes?
A. They must run long distances.
B. They are qualified for the marathon.
C. They have to follow special rules.
D. They are good at swinging their legs.
29. What advantage does race walking have over running?
A. It’s more popular at the Olympics.
B. It’s less challenging physically.
C. It’s more effective in body building.
D. It’s less likely to cause knee injuries.
30. What is Dr. Norberg’s suggestion for someone trying race walking?
A. Getting experts’ opinions.
B. Having a medical checkup.
C. Hiring an experienced coach.
D. Doing regular exercises.
31. Which word best describes the author’s attitude to race walking?
A. Skeptical. B. Objective.
C. Tolerant. D. Conservative.
The connection between people and plants has long been the subject of scientific research. Recent studies have found positive effects. A study conducted in Youngstown, Ohio, for example, discovered that greener areas of the city experienced less crime. In another, employees were shown to be 15% more productive when their workplaces were decorated with houseplants.
The engineers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have taken it a step further—changing the actual composition of plants in order to get them to perform diverse, even unusual functions. These include plants that have sensors printed onto their leaves to show when they’re short of water and a plant that can detect harmful chemicals in groundwater. “We’re thinking about how we can engineer plants to replace functions of the things that we use every day,” explained Michael Strano, a professor of chemical engineering at MIT.
One of his latest projects has been to make plants glow（发光）in experiments using some common vegetables. Strano’s team found that they could create a faint light for three-and-a-half hours. The light, about one-thousandth of the amount needed to read by, is just a start. The technology, Strano said, could one day be used to light the rooms or even to turn trees into self-powered street lamps.
In the future, the team hopes to develop a version of the technology that can be sprayed onto plant leaves in a one-off treatment that would last the plant’s lifetime. The engineers are also trying to develop an on and off “switch” where the glow would fade when exposed to daylight.
Lighting accounts for about 7% of the total electricity consumed in the US. Since lighting is often far removed from the power source（电源）—such as the distance from a power plant to street lamps on a remote highway—a lot of energy is lost during transmission（传输）. Glowing plants could reduce this distance and therefore help save energy.
32. What is the first paragraph mainly about?
A. A new study of different plants.
B. A big fall in crime rates.
C. Employees from various workplaces.
D. Benefits from green plants.
33. What is the function of the sensors printed on plant leaves by MIT engineers?
A. To detect plants’ lack of water.
B. To change compositions of plants.
C. To make the life of plants longer.
D. To test chemicals in plants.
34. What can we expect of the glowing plants in the future?
A. They will speed up energy production.
B. They may transmit electricity to the home.
C. They might help reduce energy consumption.
D. They could take the place of power plants.
35. Which of the following can be the best title for the text?
A. Can we grow more glowing plants?
B. How do we live with glowing plants?
C. Could glowing plants replace lamps?
D. How are glowing plants made pollution-free?
The Lake District Attractions Guide
Dalemain Mansion & Historic Gardens
History, Culture & Landscape （景观）. Discover and enjoy 4 centuries of history, 5 acres of celebrated and award-winning gardens with parkland walk. Owned by the Hasell family since 1679, home to the International Marmalade Festival. Gifts and antiques, plant sales, museums & Mediaeval Hall Tearoom.
Open：29 Mar—29 Oct， Sun to Thurs.
Tearoom, Gardens & Gift Shop：10. 30—17. 00 （16. 00 in Oct）.
House：11. 15—16. 00（15. 00 in Oct）.
Town: Pooley Bridge & Penrith
Abbot Hall Art Gallery & Museum
Those viewing the quality of Abbot Hall’s temporary exhibitions may be forgiven for thinking they are in a city gallery. The impressive permanent collection includes Turners and Romneys and the temporary exhibition programme has Canaletto and the artists from St Ives.
Open: Mon to Sat and Summer Sundays. 10. 30—17. 00 Summer. 10. 30—16. 00 Winter.
Tullie House Museum & Art Gallery
Discover, explore and enjoy award-winning Tullie House, where historic collections, contemporary art and family fun are brought together in one impressive museum and art gallery. There are four fantastic galleries to visit from fine art to interactive fun, so there’s something for everyone!
Open: High Season 1 Apr—31 Oct: Mon to Sat 10. 00—17. 00, Sun 11. 00—17. 00.
Low Season 1 Nov—31 Mar: Mon to Sat 10. 00—16. 30, Sun 12. 00—16. 30.
Dove Cottage & The Wordsworth Museum
Discover William Wordsworth’s inspirational home. Take a tour of his Lakeland cottage, walk through his hillside garden and explore the riches of the collection in the Museum. Visit the shop and relax in the café. Exhibitions, events and family activities throughout the year.
Open: Daily, 09. 30—17. 30 (last admission 17. 00).
21. When is the House at Dalemain Mansion & Historic Gardens open on Sundays in July?
A. 09. 30—17. 30.
B. 10. 30—16. 00.
C. 11. 15—16. 00.
D. 12. 00—16. 30.
22. What can visitors do at Abbot Hall Art Gallery & Museum?
A. Enjoy Romney’s works.
B. Have some interactive fun.
C. Attend a famous festival.
D. Learn the history of a family.
23. Where should visitors go if they want to explore Wordsworth’s life?
Some parents will buy any high-tech toy if they think it will help their child, but researchers said puzzles help children with math-related skills.
Psychologist Susan Levine, an expert on mathematics development in young children at the University of Chicago, found children who play with puzzles between ages 2 and 4 later develop better spatial skills. Puzzle play was found to be a significant predictor of cognition (认知) after controlling for differences in parents’ income, education and the amount of parent talk, Levine said.
The researchers analyzed video recordings of 53 child-parent pairs during everyday activities at home and found children who play with puzzles between 26 and 46 months of age have better spatial skills when assessed at 54 months of age.
“The children who played with puzzles performed better than those who did not, on tasks that assessed their ability to rotate (旋转) and translate shapes,” Levine said in a statement.
The parents were asked to interact with their children as they normally would, and about half of the children in the study played with puzzles at one time. Higher-income parents tended to have children play with puzzles more frequently, and both boys and girls who played with puzzles had better spatial skills. However, boys tended to play with more complex puzzles than girls, and the parents of boys provided more spatial language and were more active during puzzle play than the parents of girls.
The findings were published in the journal Developmental Science.
24. In which aspect do children benefit from puzzle play?
A. Building confidence.
B. Developing spatial skills.
C. Learning self-control.
D. Gaining high-tech knowledge.
25. What did Levine take into consideration when designing her experiment？
A. Parents’ age.
B. Children’s imagination.
C. Parents’ education.
D. Child-parent relationship.
26. How do boys differ from girls in puzzle play?
A. They play with puzzles more often.
B. They tend to talk less during the game.
C. They prefer to use more spatial language.
D. They are likely to play with tougher puzzles.
27. What is the text mainly about?
A. A mathematical method.
B. A scientific study.
C. A woman psychologist.
D. A teaching program.
When you were trying to figure out what to buy for the environmentalist on your holiday list, fur probably didn’t cross your mind. But some ecologists and fashion (时装） enthusiasts are trying to bring back the market for fur made from nutria (海狸鼠).
Unusual fashion shows in New Orleans and Brooklyn have showcased nutria fur made into clothes in different styles. “It sounds crazy to talk about guilt-free fur—unless you understand that the nutria are destroying vast wetlands every year,” says Cree McCree, project director of Righteous Fur.
Scientists in Louisiana were so concerned that they decided to pay hunters $5 a tail. Some of the fur ends up in the fashion shows like the one in Brooklyn last month.
Nutria were brought there from Argentina by fur farmers and let go into the wild. “The ecosystem down there can’t handle this non-native species（物种）. It’s destroying the environment. It’s them or us,” says Michael Massimi, an expert in this field.
The fur trade kept nutria in check for decades, but when the market for nutria collapsed in the late 1980s, the cat-sized animals multiplied like crazy.
Biologist Edmond Mouton runs the nutria control program for Louisiana. He says it’s not easy to convince people that nutria fur is green, but he has no doubt about it. Hunters bring in more than 300,000 nutria tails a year, so part of Mouton’s job these days is trying to promote fur.
Then there’s Righteous Fur and its unusual fashions. Model Paige Morgan says, “To give people a guilt-free option that they can wear without someone throwing paint on them—I think that’s going to be a massive thing, at least here in New York.” Designer Jennifer Anderson admits it took her a while to come around to the opinion that using nutria fur for her creations is morally acceptable. She’s trying to come up with a label to attach to nutria fashions to show it is eco-friendly.
28. What is the purpose of the fashion shows in New Orleans and Brooklyn?
A. To promote guilt-free fur.
B. To expand the fashion market.
C. To introduce a new brand.
D. To celebrate a winter holiday.
29. Why are scientists concerned about nutria?
A. Nutria damage the ecosystem seriously.
B. Nutria are an endangered species.
C. Nutria hurt local cat-sized animals.
D. Nutria are illegally hunted.
30. What does the underlined word “collapsed” in paragraph 5 probably mean?
B. Became mature.
C. Remained stable.
31. What can we infer about wearing fur in New York according to Morgan?
A. It’s formal.
B. It’s risky.
C. It’s harmful.
D. It’s traditional.
I have a special place in my heart for libraries. I have for as long as I can remember. I was always an enthusiastic reader, sometimes reading up to three books a day as a child. Stories were like air to me and while other kids played ball or went to parties, I lived out adventures through the books I checked out from the library.
My first job was working at the Ukiah Library when I was 16 years old. It was a dream job and I did everything from shelving books to reading to the children for story time.
As I grew older and became a mother, the library took on a new place and an added meaning in my life. I had several children and books were our main source (来源) of entertainment. It was a big deal for us to load up and go to the local library, where my kids could pick out books to read or books they wanted me to read to them.
I always read, using different voices, as though I were acting out the stories with my voice and they loved it! It was a special time to bond with my children and it filled them with the wonderment of books.
Now, I see my children taking their children to the library and I love that the excitement of going to the library lives on from generation to generation.
As a novelist, I’ve found a new relationship with libraries. I encourage readers to go to their local library when they can’t afford to purchase a book. I see libraries as a safe haven (避风港) for readers and writers, a bridge that helps put together a reader with a book. Libraries, in their own way, help fight book piracy (盗版行为) and I think all writers should support libraries in a significant way when they can. Encourage readers to use the library. Share library announcements on your social media. Frequent them and talk about them when you can.
32. Which word best describes the author’s relationship with books as a child?
33. What does the underlined phrase “an added meaning” in paragraph 3 refer to?
A. Pleasure from working in the library.
B. Joy of reading passed on in the family.
C. Wonderment from acting out the stories.
D. A closer bond developed with the readers.
34. What does the author call on other writers to do?
A. Sponsor book fairs.
B. Write for social media.
C. Support libraries.
D. Purchase her novels.
35. Which can be a suitable title for the text?
A. Reading: A Source of Knowledge
B. My Idea about Writing
C. Library: A Haven for the Young
D. My Love of the Library
Journey Back in Time with Scholars
Classical Provence (13 days)
Journey through the beautiful countryside of Provence, France, with Prof. Ori Z. Soltes. We will visit some of the best-preserved Roman monuments in the world. Our tour also includes a chance to walk in the footsteps of Van Gogh and Gauguin. Fields of flowers, tile-roofed (瓦屋顶) villages and tasty meals enrich this wonderful experience.
Southern Spain (15 days)
Spain has lovely white towns and the scent (芳香) of oranges, but it is also a treasury of ancient remains including the cities left by the Greeks, Romans and Arabs. As we travel south from Madrid with Prof. Ronald Messier to historic Toledo, Roman Mérida and into Andalucia, we explore historical monuments and architecture.
China’s Sacred Landscapes (21 days)
Discover the China of “past ages,” its walled cities, temples and mountain scenery with Prof. Robert Thorp. Highlights (精彩之处) include China’s most sacred peaks at Mount Tai and Hangzhou’s rolling hills, waterways and peaceful temples. We will wander in traditional small towns and end our tour with an exceptional museum in Shanghai.
Tunisia (17 days)
Join Prof. Pedar Foss on our in-depth Tunisian tour. Tour highlights include the Roman city of Dougga, the underground Numidian capital at Bulla Regia, Roman Sbeitla and the remote areas around Tataouine and Matmata, unique for underground cities. Our journey takes us to picturesque Berber villages and lovely beaches.
21. What can visitors see in both Classical Provence and Southern Spain?
A. Historical monuments.
B. Fields of flowers.
C. Van Gogh’s paintings.
D. Greek buildings.
22. Which country is Prof. Thorp most knowledgeable about?
23. Which of the following highlights the Tunisian tour?
A. White towns.
B. Underground cities.
C. Tile-roofed villages.
D. Rolling hills.
When “Rise of the Planet of the Apes” was first shown to the public last month, a group of excited animal activists gathered on Hollywood Boulevard. But they weren’t there to throw red paint on fur-coat-wearing film stars. Instead, one activist, dressed in a full-body monkey suit, had arrived with a sign praising the filmmakers: “Thanks for not using real apes (猿)!”
The creative team behind “Apes” used motion-capture(动作捕捉) technology to create digitalized animals, spending tens of millions of dollars on technology that records an actor’s performance and later processes it with computer graphics to create a final image (图像). In this case, one of a realistic-looking ape.
Yet “Apes” is more exception than the rule. In fact, Hollywood has been hot on live animals lately. One nonprofit organization, which monitors the treatment of animals in filmed entertainment, is keeping tabs on more than 2,000 productions this year. Already, a number of films, including “Water for Elephants,” “The Hangover Part Ⅱ” and “Zookeeper,” have drawn the anger of activists who say the creatures acting in them haven’t been treated properly.
In some cases, it’s not so much the treatment of the animals on set in the studio that has activists worried; it’s the off-set training and living conditions that are raising concerns. And there are questions about the films made outside the States, which sometimes are not monitored as closely as productions filmed in the States.
24. Why did the animal activists gather on Hollywood Boulevard?
A. To see famous film stars.
B. To oppose wearing fur coats.
C. To raise money for animal protection.
D. To express thanks to some filmmakers.
25. What does paragraph 2 mainly talk about?
A. The cost of making “Apes.”
B. The creation of digitalized apes.
C. The publicity about “Apes.”
D. The performance of real apes.
26. What does the underlined phrase “keeping tabs on” in paragraph 3 probably mean?
A. Listing completely.
B. Directing professionally.
C. Promoting successfully.
D. Watching carefully.
27. What can we infer from the last paragraph about animal actors?
A. They may be badly treated.
B. They should take further training.
C. They could be traded illegally.
D. They would lose popularity.
With the young unable to afford to leave home and the old at risk of isolation (孤独), more families are choosing to live together.
The doorway to peace and quiet, for Nick Bright at least, leads straight to his mother-in-law: she lives on the ground floor, while he lives upstairs with his wife and their two daughters.
Four years ago they all moved into a three-storey Victorian house in Bristol—one of a growing number of multigenerational families in the UK living together under the same roof. They share a front door and a washing machine, but Rita Whitehead has her own kitchen, bathroom, bedroom and living room on the ground floor.
“We floated the idea to my mum of sharing a house,” says Kathryn Whitehead. Rita cuts in: “We spoke more with Nick because I think it’s a big thing for Nick to live with his mother-in-law.”
And what does Nick think? “From my standpoint, it all seems to work very well. Would I recommend it? Yes, I think I would.”
It’s hard to tell exactly how many people agree with him, but research indicates that the numbers have been rising for some time. Official reports suggest that the number of households with three generations living together had risen from 325,000 in 2001 to 419,000 in 2013.
Other varieties of multigenerational family are more common. Some people live with their elderly parents; many more adult children are returning to the family home, if they ever left. It is said that about 20% of 25-34-year-olds live with their parents, compared with 16% in 1991. The total number of all multigenerational households in Britain is thought to be about 1. 8 million.
Stories like that are more common in parts of the world where multigenerational living is more firmly rooted. In India, particularly outside cities, young women are expected to move in with their husband’s family when they get married.
28. Who mainly uses the ground floor in the Victorian house in Bristol?
D. The daughters.
29. What is Nick’s attitude towards sharing the house with his mother-in-law?
30. What is the author’s statement about multigenerational family based on?
A. Family traditions.
B. Financial reports.
C. Published statistics.
D. Public opinions.
31. What is the text mainly about?
A. Lifestyles in different countries.
B. Conflicts between generations.
C. A housing problem in Britain.
D. A rising trend of living in the UK.
We are the products of evolution, and not just evolution that occurred billions of years ago. As scientists look deeper into our genes (基因), they are finding examples of human evolution in just the past few thousand years. People in Ethiopian highlands have adapted to living at high altitudes. Cattle-raising people in East Africa and northern Europe have gained a mutation (突变) that helps them digest milk as adults.
On Thursday in an article published in Cell, a team of researchers reported a new kind of adaptation—not to air or to food, but to the ocean. A group of sea-dwelling people in Southeast Asia have evolved into better divers. The Bajau, as these people are known, number in the hundreds of thousands in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. They have traditionally lived on houseboats; in recent times, they’ve also built houses on stilts (支柱) in coastal waters. “They are simply a stranger to the land,” said Rodney C. Jubilado, a University of Hawaii researcher who studies the Bajau.
Dr. Jubilado first met the Bajau while growing up on Samal Island in the Philippines. They made a living as divers, spearfishing or harvesting shellfish. “We were so amazed that they could stay underwater much longer than us local islanders,” Dr. Jubilado said. “I could see them actually walking under the sea.”
In 2015, Melissa Ilardo, then a graduate student in genetics at the University of Copenhagen, heard about the Bajau. She wondered if centuries of diving could have led to the evolution of physical characteristics that made the task easier for them. “It seemed like the perfect chance for natural selection to act on a population,” said Dr. Ilardo. She also said there were likely a number of other genes that help the Bajau dive.
32. What does the author want to tell us by the examples in paragraph 1?
A. Environmental adaptation of cattle raisers.
B. New knowledge of human evolution.
C. Recent findings of human origin.
D. Significance of food selection.
33. Where do the Bajau build their houses?
A. In valleys.
B. Near rivers.
C. On the beach.
D. Off the coast.
34. Why was the young Jubilado astonished at the Bajau?
A. They could walk on stilts all day.
B. They had a superb way of fishing.
C. They could stay long underwater.
D. They lived on both land and water.
35. What can be a suitable title for the text?
A. Bodies Remodeled for a Life at Sea
B. Highlanders’ Survival Skills
C. Basic Methods of Genetic Research
D. The World’s Best Divers
Need a Job This Summer?
The provincial government and its partners offer many programs to help students find summer jobs. The deadlines and what you need to apply depend on the program.
Not a student? Go to the government website to learn about programs and online tools available to help people under 30 build skills, find a job or start businesses all year round.
Jobs for Youth
If you are a teenager living in certain parts of the province, you could be eligible (符合条件) for this program, which provides eight weeks of paid employment along with training. Who is eligible: Youth 15-18 years old in select communities (社区).
Summer Company provides students with hands-on business training and awards of up to ＄3,000 to start and run their own summer businesses.
Who is eligible: Students aged 15-29, returning to school in the fall.
Stewardship Youth Ranger Program
You could apply to be a Stewardship Youth Ranger and work on local natural resource management projects for eight weeks this summer.
Who is eligible: Students aged 16 or 17 at time of hire, but not turning 18 before December 31 this year.
Summer Employment Opportunities (机会)
Through the Summer Employment Opportunities program, students are hired each year in a variety of summer positions across the Provincial Public Service, its related agencies and community groups.
Who is eligible: Students aged 15 or older. Some positions require students to be 15 to 24 or up to 29 for persons with a disability.
21. What is special about Summer Company?
A. It requires no training before employment.
B. It provides awards for running new businesses.
C. It allows one to work in the natural environment.
D. It offers more summer job opportunities.
22. What is the age range required by Stewardship Youth Ranger Program?
23. Which program favors the disabled?
A. Jobs for Youth.
B. Summer Company.
C. Stewardship Youth Ranger Program.
D. Summer Employment Opportunities.
For Canaan Elementary’s second grade in Patchogue, N. Y. , today is speech day, and right now it’s Chris Palaez’s turn. The 8-year-old is the joker of the class. With shining dark eyes, he seems like the kind of kid who would enjoy public speaking.
But he’s nervous. “I’m here to tell you today why you should...should. . .” Chris trips on the “-ld,” a pronunciation difficulty for many non-native English speakers. His teacher, Thomas Whaley, is next to him, whispering support. “...Vote for...me...” Except for some stumbles, Chris is doing amazingly well. When he brings his speech to a nice conclusion, Whaley invites the rest of the class to praise him.
A son of immigrants, Chris started learning English a little over three years ago. Whaley recalls (回想起) how at the beginning of the year, when called upon to read, Chris would excuse himself to go to the bathroom.
Learning English as a second language can be a painful experience. What you need is a great teacher who lets you make mistakes. “It takes a lot for any student,” Whaley explains, “especially for a student who is learning English as their new language, to feel confident enough to say, ‘I don’t know, but I want to know.’”
Whaley got the idea of this second-grade presidential campaign project when he asked the children one day to raise their hands if they thought they could never be a president. The answer broke his heart. Whaley says the project is about more than just learning to read and speak in public. He wants these kids to learn to boast (夸耀) about themselves.
“Boasting about yourself, and your best qualities,” Whaley says, “is very difficult for a child who came into the classroom not feeling confident.”
24. What made Chris nervous?
A. Telling a story.
B. Making a speech.
C. Taking a test.
D. Answering a question.
25. What does the underlined word “stumbles” in paragraph 2 refer to?
A. Improper pauses.
B. Bad manners.
C. Spelling mistakes.
D. Silly jokes.
26. We can infer that the purpose of Whaley’s project is to ______.
A. help students see their own strengths
B. assess students’ public speaking skills
C. prepare students for their future jobs
D. inspire students’ love for politics
27. Which of the following best describes Whaley as a teacher?
As data and identity theft becomes more and more common, the market is growing for biometric (生物测量) technologies—like fingerprint scans—to keep others out of private e-spaces. At present, these technologies are still expensive, though.
Researchers from Georgia Tech say that they have come up with a low-cost device (装置) that gets around this problem: a smart keyboard. This smart keyboard precisely measures the cadence (节奏) with which one types and the pressure fingers apply to each key. The keyboard could offer a strong layer of security by analyzing things like the force of a user’s typing and the time between key presses. These patterns are unique to each person. Thus, the keyboard can determine people’s identities, and by extension, whether they should be given access to the computer it’s connected to—regardless of whether someone gets the password right.
It also doesn’t require a new type of technology that people aren’t already familiar with. Everybody uses a keyboard and everybody types differently.
In a study describing the technology, the researchers had 100 volunteers type the word “touch” four times using the smart keyboard. Data collected from the device could be used to recognize different participants based on how they typed, with very low error rates. The researchers say that the keyboard should be pretty straightforward to commercialize and is mostly made of inexpensive, plastic-like parts. The team hopes to make it to market in the near future.
28. Why do the researchers develop the smart keyboard?
A. To reduce pressure on keys.
B. To improve accuracy in typing.
C. To replace the password system.
D. To cut the cost of e-space protection.
29. What makes the invention of the smart keyboard possible?
A. Computers are much easier to operate.
B. Fingerprint scanning techniques develop fast.
C. Typing patterns vary from person to person.
D. Data security measures are guaranteed.
30. What do the researchers expect of the smart keyboard?
A. It’ll be environment-friendly.
B. It’ll reach consumers soon.
C. It’ll be made of plastics.
D. It’ll help speed up typing.
31. Where is this text most likely from?
A. A diary.
B. A guidebook.
C. A novel.
D. A magazine.
During the rosy years of elementary school (小学), I enjoyed sharing my dolls and jokes, which allowed me to keep my high social status. I was the queen of the playground. Then came my tweens and teens, and mean girls and cool kids. They rose in the ranks not by being friendly but by smoking cigarettes, breaking rules and playing jokes on others, among whom I soon found myself.
Popularity is a well-explored subject in social psychology. Mitch Prinstein, a professor of clinical psychology sorts the popular into two categories: the likable and the status seekers. The likables’ plays-well-with-others qualities strengthen schoolyard friendships, jump-start interpersonal skills and, when tapped early, are employed ever after in life and work. Then there’s the kind of popularity that appears in adolescence: status born of power and even dishonorable behavior.
Enviable as the cool kids may have seemed, Dr. Prinstein’s studies show unpleasant consequences. Those who were highest in status in high school, as well as those least liked in elementary school, are “most likely to engage (从事) in dangerous and risky behavior.”
In one study, Dr. Prinstein examined the two types of popularity in 235 adolescents, scoring the least liked, the most liked and the highest in status based on student surveys (调查研究). “We found that the least well-liked teens had become more aggressive over time toward their classmates. But so had those who were high in status. It clearly showed that while likability can lead to healthy adjustment, high status has just the opposite effect on us.”
Dr. Prinstein has also found that the qualities that made the neighbors want you on a play date—sharing, kindness, openness—carry over to later years and make you better able to relate and connect with others.
In analyzing his and other research, Dr. Prinstein came to another conclusion: Not only is likability related to positive life outcomes, but it is also responsible for those outcomes, too. “Being liked creates opportunities for learning and for new kinds of life experiences that help somebody gain an advantage,” he said.
32. What sort of girl was the author in her early years of elementary school?
33. What is the second paragraph mainly about?
A. The classification of the popular.
B. The characteristics of adolescents.
C. The importance of interpersonal skills.
D. The causes of dishonorable behavior.
34. What did Dr. Prinstein’s study find about the most liked kids?
A. They appeared to be aggressive.
B. They tended to be more adaptable.
C. They enjoyed the highest status.
D. They performed well academically.
35. What is the best title for the text?
A. Be Nice—You Won’t Finish Last
B. The Higher the Status, the Better
C. Be the Best—You Can Make It
D. More Self-Control, Less Aggressiveness
My Favourite Books
Jo Usmar is a writer for Cosmopolitan and co-author of the This Book Will series (系列) of lifestyle books. Here she picks her top reads.
I once wrote a paper on the influence of fairy tales on Roald Dahl’s writing and it gave me a new appreciation for his strange and delightful worlds. Matilda’s battles with her cruel parents and the bossy headmistress, Miss Trunchbull, are equally funny and frightening, but they’re also aspirational.
It’s about two sisters—Eri, a model who either won’t or can’t stop sleeping, and Mari, a young student. In trying to connect to her sister, Mari starts changing her life and discovers a world of diverse “night people” who are hiding secrets.
There was a bit of me that didn’t want to love this when everyone else on the planet did, but the horror story is brilliant. There’s tension and anxiety from the beginning as Nick and Amy battle for your trust. It’s a real whodunit (侦探小说) and the frustration when you realise what’s going on is horribly enjoyable.
This is an excellent fantasy novel from one of the best storytellers around. After a serious flu outbreak wipes out 99. 4% of the world’s population, a battle unfolds between good and evil among those left. Randall Flagg is one of the scariest characters ever.
21. Who does “I” refer to in the text?
A. Stephen King.
B. Gillian Flynn.
C. Jo Usmar.
D. Roald Dahl.
22. Which of the following tells about Mari and Eri?
C. After Dark.
D. The Stand.
23. What kind of book is Gone Girl?
A. A folk tale.
B. A biography.
C. A love story.
D. A horror story.
“You can use me as a last resort (选择), and if nobody else volunteers, then I will do it.” This was an actual reply from a parent after I put out a request for volunteers for my kids’ lacrosse (长曲棍球) club.
I guess that there’s probably some demanding work schedule, or social anxiety around stepping up to help for an unknown sport. She may just need a little persuading. So I try again and tug at the heartstrings. I mention the single parent with four kids running the show and I talk about the dad coaching a team that his kids aren’t even on. At this point the unwilling parent speaks up, “Alright. Yes, I’ll do it.”
I’m secretly relieved because I know there’s real power in sharing volunteer responsibilities among many. The unwilling parent organizes the meal schedule, sends out emails, and collects money for end-of-season gifts. Somewhere along the way, the same parent ends up becoming an invaluable member of the team. The coach is able to focus on the kids while the other parents are relieved to be off the hook for another season. Handing out sliced oranges to bloodthirsty kids can be as exciting as watching your own kid score a goal.
Still, most of us volunteers breathe a sigh of relief when the season comes to a close. That relief is coupled with a deep understanding of why the same people keep coming back for more: Connecting to the community (社区) as you freely give your time, money, skills, or services provides a real joy. Volunteering just feels so good.
In that sense, I’m pretty sure volunteering is more of a selfish act than I’d freely like to admit. However, if others benefit in the process, and I get some reward too, does it really matter where my motivation lies?
24. What can we infer about the parent from her reply in paragraph 1?
A. She knows little about the club.
B. She isn’t good at sports.
C. She just doesn’t want to volunteer.
D. She’s unable to meet her schedule.
25. What does the underlined phrase “tug at the heartstrings” in paragraph 2 mean?
A. Encourage teamwork.
B. Appeal to feelings.
C. Promote good deeds.
D. Provide advice.
26. What can we learn about the parent from paragraph 3?
A. She gets interested in lacrosse.
B. She is proud of her kids.
C. She’ll work for another season.
D. She becomes a good helper.
27. Why does the author like doing volunteer work?
A. It gives her a sense of duty.
B. It makes her very happy.
C. It enables her to work hard.
D. It brings her material rewards.
Marian Bechtel sits at West Palm Beach’s Bar Louie counter by herself, quietly reading her e-book as she waits for her salad. What is she reading? None of your business! Lunch is Bechtel’s “me” time. And like more Americans, she’s not alone.
A new report found 46 percent of meals are eaten alone in America. More than half (53 percent) have breakfast alone and nearly half (46 percent) have lunch by themselves. Only at dinnertime are we eating together anymore, 74 percent, according to statistics from the report.
“I prefer to go out and be out. Alone, but together, you know?” Bechtel said, looking up from her book. Bechtel, who works in downtown West Palm Beach, has lunch with coworkers sometimes, but like many of us, too often works through lunch at her desk. A lunchtime escape allows her to keep a boss from tapping her on the shoulder. She returns to work feeling energized. “Today, I just wanted some time to myself,” she said.
Just two seats over, Andrew Mazoleny, a local video-grapher, is finishing his lunch at the bar. He likes that he can sit and check his phone in peace or chat up the barkeeper with whom he’s on a first-name basis if he wants to have a little interaction (交流). “I reflect on how my day’s gone and think about the rest of the week,” he said. “It’s a chance for self-reflection. You return to work recharged and with a plan.”
That freedom to choose is one reason more people like to eat alone. There was a time when people may have felt awkward about asking for a table for one, but those days are over. Now, we have our smartphones to keep us company at the table. “It doesn’t feel as alone as it may have before all the advances in technology,” said Laurie Demeritt, whose company provided the statistics for the report.
28. What are the statistics in paragraph 2 about?
A. Food variety.
B. Eating habits.
C. Table manners.
D. Restaurant service.
29. Why does Bechtel prefer to go out for lunch?
A. To meet with her coworkers.
B. To catch up with her work.
C. To have some time on her own.
D. To collect data for her report.
30. What do we know about Mazoleny?
A. He makes videos for the bar.
B. He’s fond of the food at the bar.
C. He interviews customers at the bar.
D. He’s familiar with the barkeeper.
31. What is the text mainly about?
A. The trend of having meals alone.
B. The importance of self-reflection.
C. The stress from working overtime.
D. The advantage of wireless technology.
Bacteria are an annoying problem for astronauts. The microorganisms (微生物) from our bodies grow uncontrollably on surfaces of the International Space Station, so astronauts spend hours cleaning them up each week. How is NASA overcoming this very tiny big problem? It’s turning to a bunch of high school kids. But not just any kids. It is depending on NASA HUNCH high school classrooms, like the one science teachers Gene Gordon and Donna Himmelberg lead at Fairport High School in Fairport, New York.
HUNCH is designed to connect high school classrooms with NASA engineers. For the past two years, Gordon’s students have been studying ways to kill bacteria in zero gravity, and they think they’re close to a solution (解决方案). “We don’t give the students any breaks. They have to do it just like NASA engineers,” says Florence Gold, a project manager.
“There are no tests,” Gordon says. “There is no graded homework. There almost are no grades, other than ‘Are you working towards your goal?’ Basically, it’s ‘I’ve got to produce this product and then, at the end of the year, present it to NASA. ’Engineers come and really do an in-person review, and. . . it’s not a very nice thing at times. It’s a hard business review of your product.”
Gordon says the HUNCH program has an impact (影响) on college admissions and practical life skills. “These kids are so absorbed in their studies that I just sit back. I don’t teach.” And that annoying bacteria? Gordon says his students are emailing daily with NASA engineers about the problem, readying a workable solution to test in space.
32. What do we know about the bacteria in the International Space Station?
A. They are hard to get rid of.
B. They lead to air pollution.
C. They appear in different forms.
D. They damage the instruments.
33. What is the purpose of the HUNCH program?
A. To strengthen teacher-student relationships.
B. To sharpen students’ communication skills.
C. To allow students to experience zero gravity.
D. To link space technology with school education.
34. What do the NASA engineers do for the students in the program?
A. Check their product.
B. Guide project designs.
C. Adjust work schedules.
D. Grade their homework.
35. What is the best title for the text?
A. NASA: The Home of Astronauts
B. Space: The Final Homework Frontier
C. Nature: An Outdoor Classroom
D. HUNCH: A College Admission Reform
OPENINGS AND PREVIEWS
Animals Out of Paper
Yolo! Productions and the Great Griffon present the play by Rajiv Joseph, in which an origami (折纸术) artist invites a teenage talent and his teacher into her studio. Merri Milwe directs. In previews. Opens Feb. 12. (West Park Presbyterian Church, 165 W. 86th St. 212-868-4444.)
Helen Mirren stars in the play by Peter Morgan, about Queen Elizabeth Ⅱ of the UK and her private meetings with twelve Prime Ministers in the course of sixty years. Stephen Daldry directs. Also starring Dylan Baker and Judith Ivey. Previews begin Feb. 14. (Schoenfeld, 236 W. 45th St. 212-239-6200.)
Lin-Manuel Miranda wrote this musical about Alexander Hamilton, in which the birth of America is presented as an immigrant story. Thomas Kail directs. In previews. Opens Feb. 17. (Public, 425 Lafayette St. 212-967-7555.)
On the Twentieth Century
Kristin Chenoweth and Peter Gallagher star in the musical comedy by Betty Comden and Adolph Green, about a Broadway producer who tries to win a movie star’s love during a cross-country train journey. Scott Ellis directs, for Roundabout Theatre Company. Previews begin Feb. 12. (American Airlines Theatre, 227 W. 42nd St. 212-719-1300.)
21. What is the play by Rajiv Joseph probably about?
A. A type of art.
B. A teenager’s studio.
C. A great teacher.
D. A group of animals.
22. Who is the director of The Audience?
A. Helen Mirren.
B. Peter Morgan.
C. Dylan Baker.
D. Stephen Daldry.
23. Which play will you go to if you are interested in American history?
A. Animals Out of Paper.
B. The Audience.
D. On the Twentieth Century.
For Western designers, China and its rich culture have long been an inspiration for Western creative.
“It’s no secret that China has always been a source (来源) of inspiration for designers,”says Amanda Hill, chief creative officer at A+E Networks, a global media company and home to some of the biggest fashion (时尚) shows.
Earlier this year, the China Through A Looking Glass exhibition in New York exhibited 140 pieces of China-inspired fashionable clothing alongside Chinese works of art, with the aim of exploring the influence of Chinese aesthetics (美学) on Western fashion and how China has fueled the fashionable imagination for centuries. The exhibition had record attendance, showing that there is huge interest in Chinese influences.
“China is impossible to overlook,” says Hill. “Chinese models are the faces of beauty and fashion campaigns that sell dreams to women all over the world, which means Chinese women are not just consumers of fashion—they are central to its movement.”Of course, not only are today’s top Western designers being influenced by China—some of the best designers of contemporary fashion are themselves Chinese. “Vera Wang, Alexander Wang, Jason Wu are taking on Galliano, Albaz, Marc Jacobs—and beating them hands down in design and sales,” adds Hill.
For Hill, it is impossible not to talk about China as the leading player when discussing fashion. “The most famous designers are Chinese, so are the models, and so are the consumers,”she says. “China is no longer just another market；in many senses it has become the market. If you talk about fashion today, you are talking about China—its influences, its direction, its breathtaking clothes, and how young designers and models are finally acknowledging that in many ways.”
24. What can we learn about the exhibition in New York?
A. It promoted the sales of artworks.
B. It attracted a large number of visitors.
C. It showed ancient Chinese clothes.
D. It aimed to introduce Chinese models.
25. What does Hill say about Chinese women?
A. They are setting the fashion.
B. They start many fashion campaigns.
C. They admire super models.
D. They do business all over the world.
26. What do the underlined words “taking on” in paragraph 4 mean?
A. learning from
B. looking down on
C. working with
D. competing against
27. What can be a suitable title for the text?
A. Young Models Selling Dreams to the World
B. A Chinese Art Exhibition Held in New York
C. Differences Between Eastern and Western Aesthetics
D. Chinese Culture Fueling International Fashion Trends
Before the 1830s, most newspapers were sold through annual subscriptions in America, usually ＄8 to ＄10 a year. Today ＄8 or ＄10 seems a small amount of money, but at that time these amounts were forbidding to most citizens. Accordingly, newspapers were read almost only by rich people in politics or the trades. In addition, most newspapers had little in them that would appeal to a mass audience. They were dull and visually forbidding. But the revolution that was taking place in the 1830s would change all that.
The trend, then, was toward the “penny paper”—a term referring to papers made widely available to the public. It meant any inexpensive newspaper；perhaps more importantly it meant newspapers that could be bought in single copies on the street.
This development did not take place overnight. It had been possible (but not easy) to buy single copies of newspapers before 1830, but this usually meant the reader had to go down to the printer’s office to purchase a copy. Street sales were almost unknown. However, within a few years, street sales of newspapers would be commonplace in eastern cities. At first the price of single copies was seldom a penny—usually two or three cents was charged—and some of the older well-known papers charged five or six cents. But the phrase “penny paper” caught the public’s fancy, and soon there would be papers that did indeed sell for only a penny.
This new trend of newspapers for “the man on the street” did not begin well. Some of the early ventures (企业) were immediate failures. Publishers already in business, people who were owners of successful papers, had little desire to change the tradition. It took a few youthful and daring businessmen to get the ball rolling.
28. Which of the following best describes newspapers in America before the 1830s?
29. What did street sales mean to newspapers?
A. They would be priced higher.
B. They would disappear from cities.
C. They could have more readers.
D. They could regain public trust.
30. Who were the newspapers of the new trend targeted at?
A. Local politicians.
B. Common people.
C. Young publishers.
D. Rich businessmen.
31. What can we say about the birth of the penny paper?
A. It was a difficult process.
B. It was a temporary success.
C. It was a robbery of the poor.
D. It was a disaster for printers.
Monkeys seem to have a way with numbers. A team of researchers trained three Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 clearly different symbols consisting of numbers and selective letters with 0-25 drops of water or juice as a reward. The researchers then tested how the monkeys combined—or added—the symbols to get the reward.
Here’s how Harvard Medical School scientist Margaret Livingstone, who led the team, described the experiment: In their cages the monkeys were provided with touch screens. On one part of the screen, a symbol would appear, and on the other side two symbols inside a circle were shown. For example, the number 7 would flash on one side of the screen and the other end would have 9 and 8. If the monkeys touched the left side of the screen they would be rewarded with seven drops of water or juice；if they went for the circle, they would be rewarded with the sum of the numbers—17 in this example.
After running hundreds of tests, the researchers noted that the monkeys would go for the higher values more than half the time, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination.
When the team examined the results of the experiment more closely, they noticed that the monkeys tended to underestimate (低估) a sum compared with a single symbol when the two were close in value—sometimes choosing, for example, a 13 over the sum of 8 and 6. The underestimation was systematic: When adding two numbers, the monkeys always paid attention to the larger of the two, and then added only a fraction (小部分) of the smaller number to it.
“This indicates that there is a certain way quantity is represented in their brains,”Dr. Livingstone says. “But in this experiment what they’re doing is paying more attention to the big number than the little one.”
32. What did the researchers do to the monkeys before testing them?
A. They fed them.
B. They named them.
C. They trained them.
D. They measured them.
33. How did the monkeys get their reward in the experiment?
A. By drawing a circle.
B. By touching a screen.
C. By watching videos.
D. By mixing two drinks.
34. What did Livingstone’s team find about the monkeys?
A. They could perform basic addition.
B. They could understand simple words.
C. They could memorize numbers easily.
D. They could hold their attention for long.
35. In which section of a newspaper may this text appear?