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2024-06-09 17:50 回答问题

此处章振邦《新编高级英语语法》所称的评注性状语(wisely)就是夸克语法体系中的外加状语,具体说就是内容外加状语的B类:价值评估。wisely属于其中的Group (i)。Quirk说的很清楚:These express a judgment on what is being said as a whole and they normally apply the same judgment simultaneously to the subject of the clause. 也就是说,既是对正在说的整句话的评价,也是对分句主语的评价。例如:    Rightly, Mrs Jensen consulted her lawyer. 本句解释为:She was right and her action was right. 因此,章振邦用lt was wise of her not to attempt to apologize解释She wisely didn't attempt to apologize没有问题,你用for替换of也没问题。 但wisely不是下加状语。另外,还得提醒不要过于纠缠术语名称。

2024-06-09 14:01 回答问题

1.当并列连词直接连接动词的情况下,通常视为并列句主语的省略。如(01)She stood up and went out=She stood up and she went out.2. 但有观点认为,如果两个谓语动词表达了不可分离的一个过程,或者两个动词具有直接的因果关系,则宜视为并列谓语。(02)He fired and killed the wolf.     此句宜理解为并列谓语,因为fired和killed the wolf有直接的因果关系,不宜被视为两个可分割过程。再比较:  (03)Mary sang and danced at the party.  (04)Mary sang and then danced at the party.句(03)的sang and danced可视为不可分离的同一个过程(边跳边唱),则不宜理解为并列句省略主语,不等同于Mary sang and she danced at the party;句(04)则为并列句省略主语,因为两个动词表达了两个不同的过程,故= Mary sang and then she danced at the party。3. 按上述第2条所引用的观点,我觉得上述6句大多是并列句省略主语,但句(4)宜视为并列谓语。4.但上述第2条提到的只是一个说法,并非严格可靠而被普遍接受。例如:(05)Mary stood up and began to dance.   虽然此句中两个谓语动作是可分离的,但Royal English Grammar依然认为一般情况下这被视为一个简单句(并列谓语);如果在and 后添加主语she,则为并列句。同时,作者又认为有时候难以区分究竟是并列句还是并列谓语。Quirk似乎也有这个意思,在CGOEL的13.12一节他说:And and or may link constituents smaller than a clause; for example, they may link predicates, thus in effect allowing ellipsis of a second or subsequent subject :(06)I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day.既然是可以连接“小于分句”的成分,例如连接谓语,这说明是并列谓语;但又说实际上允许第二个分句省略主语,这好像又成了并列句省略主语。那么,句(06)究竟是什么结构呢? Quirk认为是两可的。他继续分析道:For example, the coordinate construction in :(07)They have already finished their work and gone home. can be viewed as a clause coordination in which a subject, operator, and adverbial have been ellipted(主语、操作词和状语省略的分句并列); or it can be viewed as a single clause containing two coordinate predications.(含有两个并列谓语的单一分句)因此,我觉得在实践中多数情况下不必考虑两种结构的语法名称,尤其在缺乏语境的单句中,没必要为此纠结。5. 在并列连词连接两个wh-名词性分句时,第二个以及后面的分句都可以省略wh-连接代词或连接副词。例如:(08)I noticed how Mary talked to them and (how) they answered her. (GCE)其它并列手段(连词或逗号等)连接其它分句从属分句事亦如此。例如(均源于Quirk):(09)They admired a man who could make up his mind quickly and (who) would keep his word.(10) If I can find the letter and (if) you are interested in it, I'll let you have it.(11)He asked to be transferred, because he was unhappy, (because) he saw no drospect of promotion, and (because) conditions were far better at the other office. (12)He didn't tell us whether to wait for him or (whether) to go on without him. 再说句题外话,本网站网友不少问题都牵扯句子成分份的分析和术语的名称等问题。但其中相当比例的问题并没有完全统一的标准,也缺乏实际的价值,适可而止就好。个人己见,仅做参考!

2024-05-24 09:54 回答问题

1. I would receive £1,000 a year more是正常的表述,没有问题。下面的例句摘自时代周刊和经济学人杂志:      We would provide $600 million a year more for schools.      As a result, the importing world will lave to spend about $35 billion a year more for the same quantity of oil.     These cost billions of dollars to build and tens of millions a year more to run. 当然也可以把more用在数量之后。如:    If Kerry's tax increase were law, the average family would pay $657 more a year.  据初步观察,在币种用符号表示的情况下这两种用法比例接近。2. 即使币种不用符号,直接用英文名称,more也可置于句末。例如:This country could probably be making several billion dollars a year more if it were willing to sell to just anybody.    A successful term in the West Wing can mean a couple of million dollars a year more in salary and consulting fees, an insider estimates.  

2024-05-09 22:00 回答问题

1. 谢谢网友邀答。通常我比较关注的是英语的习惯用法。对于句子成分的分析和术语的使用,尤其是一些细节末枝问题一般不太较真。像go swimming这样的go+(vi)-ing结构,我一般将其视为习惯用法,也就是Betty Schrampfer Azar所称的idiomatic expresseions,通常不再做细分。它们在句法结构和语义上都是固化的。这样看问题比较简单省事,也是学习英语比较有效的态度。 2. 如果一定要将go后的v-ing进行句子成分定位,我对不同意见持开放态度。因为实际上没有一致认可的标准答案。当然,各人都可能会有自己比较满意的解读。章振邦把go –ing和come, sit, stand后加-ing分词分句视为“同类结构”的。这一点我觉得不很合适。试比较:(1)John has gone fishing.(2)She came running to meet me.(3)We sat telling stories to the children.(4)He stood watching the soccer match.句(1)的go fishing没有后续结构。此结构的-ing均为不及物动词用法,没有宾语。但句(2)、(3)和(4)的-ing分词都有后续结构。尤其后两句的-ing分词都有自己的宾语,它们的最合理成分是状语,表示方式或伴随状况。 所以我认为不宜把句(1)的go –ing与其它几句中的-ing分句用法混为一谈。3.  go –ing结构中的-ing分词,有人将其分析成目的状语我觉得也有一定道理。例如go fishintg,毕竟(正如牛津高阶说解释的)从语义上讲,fishing就是go的目的。4. 但我个人的看法是,从句法功能上讲,这个-ing分词更像是个动名词,作go的补语(completion)。因为在这个-ing分词前有可能用名词作为修饰语。例如go window shopping, go water skiing, go ice akating, go mountain climbing等等。假如这些-ing形式不是动名词或不具名词特性,这种修饰方式是不可能成立的。 5. 把go –ing结构中的-ing视为动名词(实际上就是名词)也是有所依据的。朗文版Fundaments of English Grammar(2003)在介绍这一结构时指出:Go is followed by a gerund in certain idiomatic expresseions about activities. Notice: There is no to between go and the gerund.  英文词典也普遍把这一结构中的-ing视为名词(也就是动名词)。例如    Our neighbors like to go hiking in the mountains. (韦氏高阶)    We're going to go skiing in Colorado this winter. (朗文高阶)    They often go fishing. (牛津高阶)    There was no time to go sightseeing in Rome.(剑桥高阶)    I go jogging every morning. (麦克米兰)    You can go boating or play tennis. (柯林斯)    She likes to go shopping with her friends. (钱伯斯)    He went swimming in the river. (朗文分类)各大词典都把上述各句的 (go) –ing明确列在noun这一词性之下。最后,把Betty Schrampfer Azar给英语教师的下面这句话作为小结:Some grammarians disagree about the nature of these -ing words; are they gerunds or participles? For your students, terminology is much less important than idiomatic use. We will call these structures “gerunds.”

2024-04-17 11:37 回答问题

1. It wasn’t Mary that looked down upon you当然是分裂式强调句。2. It-分裂句的确具有突出某一焦点的强调功能,但它是一个独立存在的句式,并非必然基于相应的非分裂句。这意味着不是每个普通句都有基本语义完全对应的It-分裂句用于强调其中的一个成分。反之亦然,并非每个It-分裂句都有(或都能还原成)一个基本语义完全对应的普通句。

2024-03-21 17:44 回答问题

你的上述倒装还原是对的。另一种相对少见的语序是把once后置,与not分离。如:He didn't look at me once. (韦氏高阶)

2024-01-26 12:19 回答问题

        check后可能跟that分句,也可能跟wh-分句,包括whether和if。所以check that...和check if/whether两种句式都存在,具体用什么样的分句根据表达的需要决定。   用check that...时,通常意味着主语对that分句所表达的情形是有预期或期待的。假如检查(核对)的结果表明that分句所表示的情形不成立,在可能的条件下主语是要进行干预或纠正的。例如:I’ll just check that I locked the door. (LLA)假如检查的结果表明门没锁好,那么我就要进行干预,把门锁好(纠正)。又例如:Check that the meat is cooked thoroughly before serving it. (LLA) Have you checked that the batteries haven’t gone flat (=become flat)? (LDOCE)上述各that分句的情形(煮熟、充满电)都是主语预期或想要的情形。此时的check更接近于make sure,有“确保”之义,虽然check本身意为检查、核实等。但check if...这一句式本身则并不意味着对结果有预期或要求,主要表达对客观事实的确定,以便采取不同的应对,无论结果为“是”还是“否”。例如:        My mother just rang to check if I was coming home.此句中老妈给我打电话是为了搞清楚我是否回家,以便做出不同的安排或准备。比如说,如果我回,她就多做两个我喜欢吃的菜等等;如果我不回,那就算了。  如果把句子改为My mother just rang to check that I was coming home,则意味着老妈打电话是为了敦促或确保我回家。      所以,明显对结果没有倾向性期待或要求的情景只能用check if/whether。例如:       Could you go and check whether I turned the oven on. (said on the telephone)       When looking up adjectives in a dictionary, check whether the meaning you want is attributive (or not)    上述两例中,check的目的是检查一下“电烤箱开没开”和某个(特定义项)的形容词是“是不是作定语”。但I turned the oven on和the meaning you want is attributive这两个情形本身并非主语的期待或要求。其中的第一句似乎恰恰相反,电烤箱开着是危险的,打电话的目的十有八九是要接电话的人把它关掉。  所以你的句子I checked with him that he was there that evening没错。如果把that改为if/whether,句子也是对的,只是蕴意有别。  个人己见,仅供参考。

2024-01-15 14:08 回答问题

谢谢小王同学邀答。个人对于rather than后所跟的动词形式有这么几点原则性的体会:    1. rather than的否定意义有两种:一种是普通型否定,主要描述客观实际;另一种是偏爱型否定,具有选择色彩。    2. rather than 跟与母句相同的动词形式,表示并列,为(准)并列连词,通常表示普通型否定;如果母句有表示意愿的偏爱型动词,则亦可理解为偏爱型否定。    3. rather than跟无to不定式时,rather than通常表示偏爱型否定,尤其母句有(would) prefer/like, want等动词。    4. 无论普通型否定还是偏爱型否定,无论是否与母句动词形式一致,rather than 后都可以跟-ing 形式。    5 rather than在句首时,后跟(有时带逻辑主语)无to不定式或-ing分词形式,此时的rather than不宜被视为(准)并列连词,而应被视为从属连词或介词。  根据以上原则性思路对网友上述六个句子试答如下:1. He insisted on staying rather than going/went.    此句rather than后要用going,与staying对称并列;不宜用went。2. He stayed rather than went/going.   此句rather than后可用went或going,表示普通型否定;也可用go表示偏爱型否定。又例如:He paid the fine rather than appeal to a higher court.   3. These measures will aggravate rather than relieving the situation.   我的直觉是此句rather than后要用动词原形relieve,与aggravate对称并列,不宜用releiving。因为the situation 是relieve和aggravate的共享宾语,这种情况下并列性很突出,动词宜用一致形式。但如果改成These measures will aggravate the situation rather than relieving it,应该没有问题。4. He was bolting his food rather than eat it.  此句rather than后宜用eating it,以便形成对称并列。如用无to不定式,似乎倾向于偏爱型否定,在这个语境中不适用。5. He telephoned rather than to write.   此句中rather than后应改为wrote或write。前者rather than为(准)并列连词,表示客观实际(义同and not);后者rather than视为从属连词,表示偏爱。但是也可用rather than writing,既可表示普通型否定,也可表示偏爱型否定。6. Rather than to drive to the front door, Langdon pulled into a parking area nestled in the evergreens.     此句中rather than在句首,须用Rather than drive...或Rather than driving...。此时的Rather than视为从属连词或介词,多表示偏爱型否定。    上述试答为个人不成熟己见,仅供参考。文中rather than的词性可能仅为一家之言,与用法相比,术语并不重要。

2024-01-08 15:26 回答问题

已经有老师给出了自己的意见。我补充几点1.千千学堂的质疑有道理。《剑桥高级英语语法》(第2版)Fewer students walk to university now than they did in 1980这个句子确有不妥。比较项(Fewer students)的对应项在分句中是不应该出现的。因此,我个人觉得比较分句they did in 1980用法不妥。这种用法在日常口语中可能会被忽视,毕竟说话不周全没必要追究。但在语法教科书似乎不该出现。我们可以看到,在《剑桥高级英语语法》第三版中,该练习答案已经改为Fewer students walk to lectures now than in 1980.  我想或许是作者或编辑意识到了第2版原句用法失当。2. 通常情况下,比较项的对应项在比较分句中不出现是强制性的的,并非选择性的。而且这个“对应项”并非仅限于做主语。作表语或宾补等也都不能在分句中出现。例如:Tom is stronger than Bob (is). (不说*Tom is stronger than Bob is strong/stronger.)    You have read more books than I (have done/read). (不说*You have read more books than I have read books/few books)    More people died of flu in 1919 than were killed in the First World War. (不说*More people died of flu in 1919 than they were killed in the First World War.)    3. 上面讲到“通常”比较项的对应项在比较分句中必须空缺。这就是大家比较喜欢引用的Huddleston所说的Counterpart of comparative phrase normally omitted unless distinct.      从Huddleston的论述看,实际就是:如果比较项不同(distinct),那么比较像的对应项就不能空缺。例如:    The swimming-pool is deeper than it is wide. (比较项deeper的对应项wide不能空缺)    She wrote more plays than her husband wrote novels. (比较项more plays的对应项novels不能空缺)当然,除了Huddleston所讲的上述例外以外,如果要让比较项的对应项出现在比较分句中,那么只能采取“补全”的方式,但这一点既难以准确表达原句意思意,又冗长繁琐,通常被视为非正式或非标准英语。例如:They sent more vegetables than I had ordered. They sent more paper than what I had ordered.第一句是标准英语,但第2句就是非标准英语,尽管有人这样用。    至于直接在分句中用人称代词,这样的用法仅有小范围的可行性,一般都不可以。例如本体讨论的这个句子,如果写成Fewer students walk to university now than did in 1980,这不可取。因为they指代的就是前文中的名词fewer people,但实际上(现在步行上学和1980年步行上学)两者是完全不同的人,they无法指代前者。很多主语空缺就是这样造成的,因为很难补上空缺部分。这个问题以前有过很多讨论,就不多说了。   4. 至于《剑桥英语语法》2.1 Reduction of comparative clauses一节提到的比较分句的缩略式或省略式,有的是强制性的,有的是选择性的。而(b)Counterpart of comparative phrase normally omitted unless distinct这一小节正好就包含在Huddleston所讲的强制性缩略(obligatory reduction)中,符合也就是我们讨论的“比较项的对应项通常不在分句中出现”这个主题。而可省可不省的是《剑桥英语语法》一书中 (c)-(g)诸小结的内容,已经脱离了“比较项的对应项”这一议题范围。

2023-12-21 10:52 回答问题

两句都可以说,意思有别。前一句仅说明他能够追上(乘上),有这能力;有一句意味着实际追上(乘上)了,能力实现了。