When the explorers first set foot upon the continent of North America, the skies and lands were alive with an astonishing variety of wildlife. Native Americans had taken care of these precious natural resources wisely. Unfortunately, it took the explorers and the settlers who followed only a few decades to decimate a large part of these resources. Millions of waterfowl (水禽) were killed at the hands of market hunters and a handful of overly ambitious sportsmen. Millions of acres of wetlands were dried to feed and house the ever-increasing populations, greatly reducing waterfowl habitat (栖息地).
In 1934, with the passage of the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act, an increasingly concerned nation took firm action to stop the destruction of migratory (迁徙的) waterfowl and the wetlands so vital to their survival. Under this Act, all waterfowl hunters 16 years of age and over must annually purchase and carry a Federal Duck Stamp. The very first Federal Duck Stamp was designed by J.N. “Ding” Darling, a political cartoonist from Des Moines, lowa, who at that time was appointed by President Franklin Roosevelt as Director of the Bureau of Biological Survey. Hunters willingly pay the stamp price to ensure the survival of our natural resources.
About 98 cents of every duck stamp dollar goes directly into the Migratory Bird Conservation Fund to purchase wetlands and wildlife habitat for inclusion into the National Wildlife Refuge System — a fact that ensures this land will be protected and available for all generations to come. Since 1934, better than half a billion dollars has gone into that Fund to purchase more than 5 million acres of habitat. Little wonder the Federal Duck Stamp Program has been called one of the most successful conservation programs ever initiated.
28. What was a cause of the waterfowl population decline in North America?
A. Loss of wetlands.
B. Popularity of water sports.
C. Pollution of rivers.
D. Arrival of other wild animals.
29. What does the underlined word “decimate” mean in the first paragraph?
30. What is a direct result of the Act passed in 1934?
A. The stamp price has gone down.
B. The migratory birds have flown away.
C. The hunters have stopped hunting.
D. The government has collected money.
31. Which of the following is a suitable title for the text?
A. The Federal Duck Stamp Story
B. The National Wildlife Refuge System
C. The Benefits of Saving Waterfowl
D. The History of Migratory Bird Hunting
A British woman who won a S1 million prize after she was named the World’s Best Teacher will use the cash to bring inspirational figures into UK schools.
Andria Zafirakou, a north London secondary school teacher, said she wanted to bring about a classroom revolution (变革). “We are going to make a change,” she said. “I’ve started a project to promote the teaching of the arts in our schools."
The project results from the difficulties many schools have in getting artists of any sort - whether an up-and-coming local musician or a major movie star - into schools to work with and inspire children.
Zafirakou began the project at AlpertonCommunitySchool, her place of work for the past twelve years. “I’ve seen those magic moments when children are talking to someone they are inspired by - their eyes are shining and their faces light up,” she said. “We need artists, more than ever in our schools.”
Artist Michael Craig-Martin said: “Andria’s brilliant project to bring artists from all fields into direct contact with children is particularly welcome at a time when the arts are being downgraded in schools." It was a mistake to see the arts as unnecessary, he added.
Historian Sir Simon Schama is also a supporter of the project. He said that arts education in schools was not just an add-on. “It is absolutely necessary. The future depends on creativity and creativity depends on the young. What will remain of us when artificial intelligence takes over will be our creativity, and it is our creative spirit, our visionary sense of freshness, that has been our strength for centuries.”
28.What will Zafirakou do with her prize money?
A. Make a movie.
B. Build new schools.
C. Run a project.
D. Help local musicians.
29.What does Craig-Martin think of the teaching of the arts in UK schools?
A. It is particularly difficult.
B. It increases artists’ income.
C. It opens children’s mind.
D. It deserves greater attention.
30.What should be stressed in school education according to Schama?
A. Moral principles.
B. Interpersonal skills. C. Creative abilities.
D. Positive worldviews.
31.Which of the following is a suitable title for the text?
A. Bring Artists to Schools
B. When Historians Meet Artists
C. Arts Education in Britain
D. The World’s Best Arts Teacher
You’ve heard that plastic is polluting the oceans—between 4.8 and 12.7 million tonnes enter ocean ecosystems every year. But does one plastic straw or cup really make a difference? Artist Benjamin Von Wong wants you to know that it does. He builds massive sculptures out of plastic garbage, forcing viewers to re-examine their relationship to single-use plastic products.
At the beginning of the year, the artist built a piece called “Strawpocalypse,” a pair of 10-foot-tall plastic waves, frozen mid-crash. Made of 168,000 plastic straws collected from several volunteer beach cleanups, the sculpture made its first appearance at the Estella Place shopping center in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Just 9% of global plastic waste is recycled. Plastic straws are by no means the biggest source (来源) of plastic pollution, but they’ve recently come under fire because most people don’t need them to drink with and, because of their small size and weight, they cannot be recycled. Every straw that’s part of Von Wong’s artwork likely came from a drink that someone used for only a few minutes. Once the drink is gone, the straw will take centuries to disappear.
In a piece from 2018, Von Wong wanted to illustrate (说明) a specific statistic: Every 60 seconds, a truckload’s worth of plastic enters the ocean. For this work, titled “Truckload of Plastic,” Von Wong and a group of volunteers collected more than 10,000 pieces of plastic, which were then tied together to look like they’d been dumped (倾倒) from a truck all at once.
Von Wong hopes that his work will also help pressure big companies to reduce their plastic footprint.
28. What are Von Wong’s artworks intended for?
A. Beautifying the city he lives in.
B. Introducing eco-friendly products.
C. Drawing public attention to plastic waste.
D. Reducing garbage on the beach.
29. Why does the author discuss plastic straws in paragraph 3?
A. To show the difficulty of their recycling.
B. To explain why they are useful.
C. To voice his views on modern art.
D. To find a substitute for them.
30. What effect would “Truckload of Plastic” have on viewers?
31. Which of the following can be the best title for the text?
A. Artists’ Opinions on Plastic Safety
B. Media Interest in Contemporary Art
C. Responsibility Demanded of Big Companies
D. Ocean Plastics Transformed into Sculptures
When I was 9, we packed up our home in Los Angeles and arrived at Heathrow, London on a gray January morning. Everyone in the family settled quickly into the city except me. Without my beloved beaches and endless blue-sky days, I felt at a loss and out of place. Until I made a discovery.
Southbank, at an eastern bend in the Thames, is the center of British skateboarding, where the continuous crashing of skateboards left your head ringing. I loved it. I soon made friends with the local skaters. We spoke our own language. And my favorite: Safe. Safe meant cool. It meant hello. It meant don’t worry about it. Once, when trying a certain trick on the beam (横杆), I fell onto the stones, damaging a nerve in my hand, and Toby came over, helping me up: Safe, man. Safe. A few minutes later, when I landed the trick, my friends beat their boards loud, shouting:“Safe! Safe! Safe!”And that’s what mattered—landing tricks, being a good skater.
When I was 15, my family moved to Washington. I tried skateboarding there, but the locals were far less welcoming. Within a couple of years, I’d given it up.
When I returned to London in 2004, I found myself wandering down to Southbank, spending hours there. I’ve traveled back several times since, most recently this past spring. The day was cold but clear；tourists and Londoners stopped to watch the skaters. Weaving (穿梭) among the kids who rushed by on their boards, I found my way to the beam. Then a rail-thin teenager, in a baggy white T-shirt, skidded (滑) up to the beam. He sat next to me. He seemed not to notice the man next to him. But soon I caught a few of his glances. “I was a local here 20 years ago,” I told him. Then, slowly, he began to nod his head. “Safe, man. Safe.”
“Yeah,” I said. “Safe.”
8. What can we learn about the author soon after he moved to London?
A. He felt disappointed.
B. He gave up his hobby.
C. He liked the weather there.
D. He had disagreements with his family.
9. What do the underlined words “Safe! Safe! Safe!” probably mean?
A. Be careful!
B. Well done!
C. No way!
D. Don’t worry!
10. Why did the author like to spend time in Southbank when he returned to London?
A. To join the skateboarding.
B. To make new friends.
C. To learn more tricks.
D. To relive his childhood days.
11. What message does the author seem to convey in the text?
A. Children should learn a second language.
B. Sport is necessary for children’s health.
C. Children need a sense of belonging.
D. Seeing the world is a must for children.
In the mid-1990s, Tom Bissell taught English as a volunteer in Uzbekistan. He left after seven months, physically broken and having lost his mind. A few years later, still attracted to the country, he returned to Uzbekistan to write an article about the disappearance of the Aral Sea.
His visit, however, ended up involving a lot more than that. Hence this book, Chasing the Sea: Lost Among the Ghosts of Empire in Central Asia, which talks about a road trip from Tashkent to Karakalpakstan, where millions of lives have been destroyed by the slow drying up of the sea. It is the story of an American travelling to a strange land, and of the people he meets on his way: Rustam, his translator, a lovely 24-year-old who picked up his colorful English in California, Oleg and Natasha, his hosts in Tashkent, and a string of foreign aid workers.
This is a quick look at life in Uzbekistan, made of friendliness and warmth, but also its darker side of society. In Samarkand, Mr Bissell admires the architectural wonders, while on his way to Bukhara he gets a taste of police methods when suspected of drug dealing. In Ferghana, he attends a mountain funeral (葬礼) followed by a strange drinking party. And in Karakalpakstan, he is saddened by the dust storms, diseases and fishing boats stuck miles from the sea.
Mr Bissell skillfully organizes historical insights and cultural references, making his tale a well-rounded picture of Uzbekistan, seen from Western eyes. His judgment and references are decidedly American, as well as his delicate stomach. As the author explains, this is neither a travel nor a history book, or even a piece of reportage. Whatever it is, the result is a fine and vivid description of the purest of Central Asian traditions.
8. What made Mr Bissell return to Uzbekistan?
A. His friends’ invitation.
B. His interest in the country.
C. His love for teaching.
D. His desire to regain health.
9. What does the underlined word “that” in paragraph 2 refer to?
A. Developing a serious mental disease.
B. Taking a guided tour in Central Asia.
C. Working as a volunteer in Uzbekistan.
D. Writing an article about the Aral Sea.
10. Which of the following best describes Mr Bissell’s road trip in Uzbekistan?
11. What is the purpose of this text?
A. To introduce a book.
B. To explain a cultural phenomenon.
C. To remember a writer.
D. To recommend a travel destination.
In May 1987 the Golden GateBridge had a 50th birthday party. The bridge was closed to motor traffic so people could enjoy a walk across it. Organizers expected perhaps 50,000 people to show up. Instead, as many as 800,000 crowded the roads to the bridge. By the time 250,000 were on the bridge, engineers noticed something terrible: the roadway was flattening under what turned out to be the heaviest load it had ever been asked to carry. Worse, it was beginning to sway (晃动). The authorities closed access to the bridge and tens of thousands of people made their way back to land. A disaster was avoided.
The story is one of scores in To Forgive Design: Understanding Failure, a book that is at once a love letter to engineering and a paean (赞歌) to its breakdowns. Its author, Dr. Henry Petroski, has long been writing about disasters. In this book he includes the loss of the space shuttles (航天飞机) Challenger and Columbia, and the sinking of the Titanic.
Though he acknowledges that engineering works can fail because the person who thought them up or engineered them simply got things wrong, in this book Dr. Petroski widens his view to consider the larger context in which such failures occur. Sometimes devices fail because a good design is constructed with low quality materials incompetently applied. Or perhaps a design works so well it is adopted elsewhere again and again, with seemingly harmless improvements, until, suddenly, it does not work at all anymore.
Readers will encounter not only stories they have heard before, but some new stories and a moving discussion of the responsibility of the engineer to the public and the ways young engineers can be helped to grasp them.
“Success is success but that is all that it is,” Dr. Petroski writes. It is failure that brings improvement.
28. What happened to the Golden GateBridge on its 50th birthday?
A. It carried more weight than it could.
B. It swayed violently in a strong wind.
C. Its roadway was damaged by vehicles.
D. Its access was blocked by many people.
29. Which of the following is Dr. Ptroski’s idea according to paragraph 3?
A. No design is well received everywhere.
B. Construction is more important than design.
C. Not all disasters are caused by engineering design.
D. Improvements on engineering works are necessary.
30. What does the last paragraph suggest?
A. Failure can lead to progress.
B. Success results in overconfidence.
C. Failure should be avoided.
D. Success comes from joint efforts.
31. What is the text?
A. A news report.
B. A short story.
C. A book review.
D. A research article.
Race walking shares many fitness benefits with running, research shows, while most likely contributing to fewer injuries. It does, however, have its own problem.
Race walkers are conditioned athletes. The longest track and field event at the Summer Olympics is the 50-kilometer race walk, which is about five miles longer than the marathon. But the sport’s rules require that a race walker’s knees stay straight through most of the leg swing and one foot remain in contact (接触) with the ground at all times. It’s this strange form that makes race walking such an attractive activity, however, says Jaclyn Norberg, an assistant professor of exercise science at SalemStateUniversity in Salem, Mass.
Like running, race walking is physically demanding, she says. According to most calculations, race walkers moving at a pace of six miles per hour would burn about 800 calories (卡路里) per hour, which is approximately twice as many as they would burn walking, although fewer than running, which would probably burn about 1,000 or more calories per hour.
However, race walking does not pound the body as much as running does, Dr. Norberg says. According to her research, runners hit the ground with as much as four times their body weight per step, while race walkers, who do not leave the ground, create only about 1. 4 times their body weight with each step.
As a result, she says, some of the injuries associated with running, such as runner’s knee, are uncommon among race walkers. But the sport’s strange form does place considerable stress on the ankles and hips, so people with a history of such injuries might want to be cautious in adopting the sport. In fact, anyone wishing to try race walking should probably first consult a coach or experienced racer to learn proper technique, she says. It takes some practice.
28. Why are race walkers conditioned athletes?
A. They must run long distances.
B. They are qualified for the marathon.
C. They have to follow special rules.
D. They are good at swinging their legs.
29. What advantage does race walking have over running?
A. It’s more popular at the Olympics.
B. It’s less challenging physically.
C. It’s more effective in body building.
D. It’s less likely to cause knee injuries.
30. What is Dr. Norberg’s suggestion for someone trying race walking?
A. Getting experts’ opinions.
B. Having a medical checkup.
C. Hiring an experienced coach.
D. Doing regular exercises.
31. Which word best describes the author’s attitude to race walking?
A. Skeptical. B. Objective.
C. Tolerant. D. Conservative.
When you were trying to figure out what to buy for the environmentalist on your holiday list, fur probably didn’t cross your mind. But some ecologists and fashion (时装） enthusiasts are trying to bring back the market for fur made from nutria (海狸鼠).
Unusual fashion shows in New Orleans and Brooklyn have showcased nutria fur made into clothes in different styles. “It sounds crazy to talk about guilt-free fur—unless you understand that the nutria are destroying vast wetlands every year,” says Cree McCree, project director of Righteous Fur.
Scientists in Louisiana were so concerned that they decided to pay hunters $5 a tail. Some of the fur ends up in the fashion shows like the one in Brooklyn last month.
Nutria were brought there from Argentina by fur farmers and let go into the wild. “The ecosystem down there can’t handle this non-native species（物种）. It’s destroying the environment. It’s them or us,” says Michael Massimi, an expert in this field.
The fur trade kept nutria in check for decades, but when the market for nutria collapsed in the late 1980s, the cat-sized animals multiplied like crazy.
Biologist Edmond Mouton runs the nutria control program for Louisiana. He says it’s not easy to convince people that nutria fur is green, but he has no doubt about it. Hunters bring in more than 300,000 nutria tails a year, so part of Mouton’s job these days is trying to promote fur.
Then there’s Righteous Fur and its unusual fashions. Model Paige Morgan says, “To give people a guilt-free option that they can wear without someone throwing paint on them—I think that’s going to be a massive thing, at least here in New York.” Designer Jennifer Anderson admits it took her a while to come around to the opinion that using nutria fur for her creations is morally acceptable. She’s trying to come up with a label to attach to nutria fashions to show it is eco-friendly.
28. What is the purpose of the fashion shows in New Orleans and Brooklyn?
A. To promote guilt-free fur.
B. To expand the fashion market.
C. To introduce a new brand.
D. To celebrate a winter holiday.
29. Why are scientists concerned about nutria?
A. Nutria damage the ecosystem seriously.
B. Nutria are an endangered species.
C. Nutria hurt local cat-sized animals.
D. Nutria are illegally hunted.
30. What does the underlined word “collapsed” in paragraph 5 probably mean?
B. Became mature.
C. Remained stable.
31. What can we infer about wearing fur in New York according to Morgan?
A. It’s formal.
B. It’s risky.
C. It’s harmful.
D. It’s traditional.
With the young unable to afford to leave home and the old at risk of isolation (孤独), more families are choosing to live together.
The doorway to peace and quiet, for Nick Bright at least, leads straight to his mother-in-law: she lives on the ground floor, while he lives upstairs with his wife and their two daughters.
Four years ago they all moved into a three-storey Victorian house in Bristol—one of a growing number of multigenerational families in the UK living together under the same roof. They share a front door and a washing machine, but Rita Whitehead has her own kitchen, bathroom, bedroom and living room on the ground floor.
“We floated the idea to my mum of sharing a house,” says Kathryn Whitehead. Rita cuts in: “We spoke more with Nick because I think it’s a big thing for Nick to live with his mother-in-law.”
And what does Nick think? “From my standpoint, it all seems to work very well. Would I recommend it? Yes, I think I would.”
It’s hard to tell exactly how many people agree with him, but research indicates that the numbers have been rising for some time. Official reports suggest that the number of households with three generations living together had risen from 325,000 in 2001 to 419,000 in 2013.
Other varieties of multigenerational family are more common. Some people live with their elderly parents; many more adult children are returning to the family home, if they ever left. It is said that about 20% of 25-34-year-olds live with their parents, compared with 16% in 1991. The total number of all multigenerational households in Britain is thought to be about 1. 8 million.
Stories like that are more common in parts of the world where multigenerational living is more firmly rooted. In India, particularly outside cities, young women are expected to move in with their husband’s family when they get married.
28. Who mainly uses the ground floor in the Victorian house in Bristol?
D. The daughters.
29. What is Nick’s attitude towards sharing the house with his mother-in-law?
30. What is the author’s statement about multigenerational family based on?
A. Family traditions.
B. Financial reports.
C. Published statistics.
D. Public opinions.
31. What is the text mainly about?
A. Lifestyles in different countries.
B. Conflicts between generations.
C. A housing problem in Britain.
D. A rising trend of living in the UK.
As data and identity theft becomes more and more common, the market is growing for biometric (生物测量) technologies—like fingerprint scans—to keep others out of private e-spaces. At present, these technologies are still expensive, though.
Researchers from Georgia Tech say that they have come up with a low-cost device (装置) that gets around this problem: a smart keyboard. This smart keyboard precisely measures the cadence (节奏) with which one types and the pressure fingers apply to each key. The keyboard could offer a strong layer of security by analyzing things like the force of a user’s typing and the time between key presses. These patterns are unique to each person. Thus, the keyboard can determine people’s identities, and by extension, whether they should be given access to the computer it’s connected to—regardless of whether someone gets the password right.
It also doesn’t require a new type of technology that people aren’t already familiar with. Everybody uses a keyboard and everybody types differently.
In a study describing the technology, the researchers had 100 volunteers type the word “touch” four times using the smart keyboard. Data collected from the device could be used to recognize different participants based on how they typed, with very low error rates. The researchers say that the keyboard should be pretty straightforward to commercialize and is mostly made of inexpensive, plastic-like parts. The team hopes to make it to market in the near future.
28. Why do the researchers develop the smart keyboard?
A. To reduce pressure on keys.
B. To improve accuracy in typing.
C. To replace the password system.
D. To cut the cost of e-space protection.
29. What makes the invention of the smart keyboard possible?
A. Computers are much easier to operate.
B. Fingerprint scanning techniques develop fast.
C. Typing patterns vary from person to person.
D. Data security measures are guaranteed.
30. What do the researchers expect of the smart keyboard?
A. It’ll be environment-friendly.
B. It’ll reach consumers soon.
C. It’ll be made of plastics.
D. It’ll help speed up typing.
31. Where is this text most likely from?
A. A diary.
B. A guidebook.
C. A novel.
D. A magazine.
Marian Bechtel sits at West Palm Beach’s Bar Louie counter by herself, quietly reading her e-book as she waits for her salad. What is she reading? None of your business! Lunch is Bechtel’s “me” time. And like more Americans, she’s not alone.
A new report found 46 percent of meals are eaten alone in America. More than half (53 percent) have breakfast alone and nearly half (46 percent) have lunch by themselves. Only at dinnertime are we eating together anymore, 74 percent, according to statistics from the report.
“I prefer to go out and be out. Alone, but together, you know?” Bechtel said, looking up from her book. Bechtel, who works in downtown West Palm Beach, has lunch with coworkers sometimes, but like many of us, too often works through lunch at her desk. A lunchtime escape allows her to keep a boss from tapping her on the shoulder. She returns to work feeling energized. “Today, I just wanted some time to myself,” she said.
Just two seats over, Andrew Mazoleny, a local video-grapher, is finishing his lunch at the bar. He likes that he can sit and check his phone in peace or chat up the barkeeper with whom he’s on a first-name basis if he wants to have a little interaction (交流). “I reflect on how my day’s gone and think about the rest of the week,” he said. “It’s a chance for self-reflection. You return to work recharged and with a plan.”
That freedom to choose is one reason more people like to eat alone. There was a time when people may have felt awkward about asking for a table for one, but those days are over. Now, we have our smartphones to keep us company at the table. “It doesn’t feel as alone as it may have before all the advances in technology,” said Laurie Demeritt, whose company provided the statistics for the report.
28. What are the statistics in paragraph 2 about?
A. Food variety.
B. Eating habits.
C. Table manners.
D. Restaurant service.
29. Why does Bechtel prefer to go out for lunch?
A. To meet with her coworkers.
B. To catch up with her work.
C. To have some time on her own.
D. To collect data for her report.
30. What do we know about Mazoleny?
A. He makes videos for the bar.
B. He’s fond of the food at the bar.
C. He interviews customers at the bar.
D. He’s familiar with the barkeeper.
31. What is the text mainly about?
A. The trend of having meals alone.
B. The importance of self-reflection.
C. The stress from working overtime.
D. The advantage of wireless technology.
Before the 1830s, most newspapers were sold through annual subscriptions in America, usually ＄8 to ＄10 a year. Today ＄8 or ＄10 seems a small amount of money, but at that time these amounts were forbidding to most citizens. Accordingly, newspapers were read almost only by rich people in politics or the trades. In addition, most newspapers had little in them that would appeal to a mass audience. They were dull and visually forbidding. But the revolution that was taking place in the 1830s would change all that.
The trend, then, was toward the “penny paper”—a term referring to papers made widely available to the public. It meant any inexpensive newspaper；perhaps more importantly it meant newspapers that could be bought in single copies on the street.
This development did not take place overnight. It had been possible (but not easy) to buy single copies of newspapers before 1830, but this usually meant the reader had to go down to the printer’s office to purchase a copy. Street sales were almost unknown. However, within a few years, street sales of newspapers would be commonplace in eastern cities. At first the price of single copies was seldom a penny—usually two or three cents was charged—and some of the older well-known papers charged five or six cents. But the phrase “penny paper” caught the public’s fancy, and soon there would be papers that did indeed sell for only a penny.
This new trend of newspapers for “the man on the street” did not begin well. Some of the early ventures (企业) were immediate failures. Publishers already in business, people who were owners of successful papers, had little desire to change the tradition. It took a few youthful and daring businessmen to get the ball rolling.
28. Which of the following best describes newspapers in America before the 1830s?
29. What did street sales mean to newspapers?
A. They would be priced higher.
B. They would disappear from cities.
C. They could have more readers.
D. They could regain public trust.
30. Who were the newspapers of the new trend targeted at?
A. Local politicians.
B. Common people.
C. Young publishers.
D. Rich businessmen.
31. What can we say about the birth of the penny paper?
A. It was a difficult process.
B. It was a temporary success.
C. It was a robbery of the poor.
D. It was a disaster for printers.
Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going. When the world was still populated by hunter-gatherers, small, tightly knit（联系) groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other. Some language experts believe that 10,000 years ago, when the world had just five to ten million people, they spoke perhaps 12,000 languages between them.
Soon afterwards, many of those people started settling down to become farmers, and their languages too became more settled and fewer in number. In recent centuries, trade, industrialisation, the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially globalisation and better communications in the past few decades, all have caused many languages to disappear, and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over.
At present, the world has about 6, 800 languages. The distribution of these languages is hugely uneven. The general rule is that mild zones have relatively few languages, often spoken by many people, while hot, wet zones have lots, often spoken by small numbers. Europe has only around 200 languages; the Americas about 1,000; Africa 2,400; and Asia and the Pacific perhaps 3,200, of which Papua New Guinea alone accounts for well over 800. The median number (中位数) of speakers is a mere 6,000, which means that half the world’s languages are spoken by fewer people than that.
Already well over 400 of the total of 6, 800 languages are close to extinction (消亡), with only a few elderly speakers left. Pick, at random, Busuu in Cameroon（eight remaining speakers）, Chiapaneco in Mexico (150), Lipan Apache in the United States (two or three) or Wadjigu in Australia (one, with a question-mark): none of these seems to have much chance of survival.
28. What can we infer about languages in hunter-gatherer times?
A. They developed very fast.
B. They were large in number.
C. They had similar patterns.
D. They were closely connected.
29. Which of the following best explains “dominant” underlined in paragraph 2?
30. How many languages are spoken by less than 6,000 people at present?
A. About 6,800.
B. About 3,400.
C. About 2,400.
D. About 1,200.
31. What is the main idea of the text?
A. New languages will be created.
B. People’s lifestyles are reflected in languages.
C. Human development results in fewer languages.
D. Geography determines language evolution.
Teens and younger children are reading a lot less for fun, according to a Common Sense Media report published Monday.
While the decline over the past decade is steep for teen readers, some data in the report shows that reading remains a big part of many children’s lives, and indicates how parents might help encourage more reading.
According to the report’s key findings, “the proportion (比例) who say they ‘hardly ever’ read for fun has gone from 8 percent of 13-year-olds and 9 percent of 17-year-olds in 1984 to 22 percent and 27 percent respectively today.”
The report data shows that pleasure reading levels for younger children, ages 2—8, remain largely the same. But the amount of time spent in reading each session has declined, from closer to an hour or more to closer to a half hour per session.
When it comes to technology and reading, the report does little to counsel（建议）parents looking for data about the effect of e-readers and tablets on reading. It does point out that many parents still limit electronic reading, mainly due to concerns about increased screen time.
The most hopeful data shared in the report shows clear evidence of parents serving as examples and important guides for their kids when it comes to reading. Data shows that kids and teens who do read frequently, compared to infrequent readers, have more books in the home, more books purchased for them, parents who read more often, and parents who set aside time for them to read.
As the end of school approaches, and school vacation reading lists loom (逼近) ahead, parents might take this chance to step in and make their own summer reading list and plan a family trip to the library or bookstore.
28. What is the Common Sense Media report probably about?
A. Children’s reading habits.
B. Quality of children’s books.
C. Children’s after-class activities.
D. Parent-child relationships.
29. Where can you find the data that best supports “children are reading a lot less for fun”?
A. In paragraph 2.
B. In paragraph 3.
C. In paragraph 4.
D. In paragraph 5.
30. Why do many parents limit electronic reading?
A. E-books are of poor quality.
B. It could be a waste of time.
C. It may harm children’s health.
D. E-readers are expensive.
31. How should parents encourage their children to read more?
A. Act as role models for them.
B. Ask them to write book reports.
C. Set up reading groups for them.
D. Talk with their reading class teachers.
While famous foreign architects are invited to lead the designs of landmark buildings in China such as the new CCTV tower and the NationalCenter for the Performing Arts, many excellent Chinese architects are making great efforts to take the center stage.
Their efforts have been proven fruitful. Wang Shu, a 49-year-old Chinese architect, won the 2012 Pritzker Architecture Prize—which is often referred to as the Nobel Prize in architecture—on February 28. He is the first Chinese citizen to win this award.
Wang serves as head of the Architecture Department at the China Academy of Art (CAA). His office is located at the Xiangshan campus (校园) of the university in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. Many buildings on the campus are his original creations.
The style of the campus is quite different from that of most Chinese universities. Many visitors were amazed by the complex architectural space and abundant building types. The curves (曲线) of the buildings perfectly match the rise and fall of hills, forming a unique view.
Wang collected more than 7 million abandoned bricks of different ages. He asked the workers to use traditional techniques to make the bricks into walls, roofs and corridors. This creation attracted a lot of attention thanks to its mixture of modern and traditional Chinese elements (元素).
Wang’s works show a deep understanding of modern architecture and a good knowledge of traditions. Through such a balance, he had created a new type of Chinese architecture, said Tadao Ando, the winner of the 1995 Pritzker Prize.
Wang believes traditions should not be sealed in glass boxes at museums. “That is only evidence that traditions once existed,” he said.
“Many Chinese people have a misunderstanding of traditions. They think tradition means old things from the past. In fact, tradition also refers to the things that have been developing and that are still being created,” he said.
“Today, many Chinese people are learning Western styles and theories rather than focusing on Chinese traditions. Many people tend to talk about traditions without knowing what they really are,” said Wang.
The study of traditions should be combined with practice. Otherwise, the recreation of traditions would be artificial and empty, he said.
28. Wang’s winning of the prize means that Chinese architects are ______.
A. following the latest world trend
B. getting international recognition
C. working harder than ever before
D. relying on foreign architects
29. What impressed visitors to the CAA Xiangshan campus most?
A. Its hilly environment.
B. Its large size.
C. Its unique style.
D. Its diverse functions.
30. What made Wang’s architectural design a success?
A. The mixture of different shapes.
B. The balance of East and West.
C. The use of popular techniques.
D. The harmony of old and new.
31. What should we do about Chinese traditions according to Wang?
A. Spread them to the world.
B. Preserve them at museums.
C. Teach them in universities.
D. Recreate them in practice.