特殊结构的定语从句以及定语从句表达状语从句的意义

特殊结构的定语从句以及定语从句表达状语从句的意义刘永科网友经常问到一些特殊结构的定语从句,以及怎样理解和翻译一些特殊意义的定语从句。鉴于此,特写本文。一、特殊结构的定语从句除了限制...

特殊结构的定语从句以及定语从句表达状语从句的意义

刘永科


网友经常问到一些特殊结构的定语从句,以及怎样理解和翻译一些特殊意义的定语从句。鉴于此,特写本文。

一、特殊结构的定语从句

除了限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句外,还有一些其他形式的定语从句。定语从句在实际运用过程中,具有较强的灵活性,因此其结构也较为复杂,现将常见的特殊结构的定语从句,归纳分析如下:

1. 嵌入式定语从句:

He is the only person who we expect will win. 他是唯一我们希望会获胜的人。

She had a book which she believed was bought by her father at a dear price. 她有一本父亲送她的书,她相信是父亲花了大价钱专门买来送她的。

嵌入式,相当于在定语从句前加了一个主谓句(位置在关系词之后),让定语从句作其宾语。例句中,who will win 作了we expect 的宾语从句。which was bought by her father at a dear price 作了 she believed 的宾语从句。嵌入式实际就是在一个定语从句前,又加了一个插入成分,让定语从句作其宾语。常见的嵌入语有:I think/believe/guess/expect 以及 I am sure, they say 等。所以,有人也叫插入成分

2. 并列式定语从句:

Paris is a good place where art is so popular and which many people appreciate. 巴黎是一个艺术非常受欢迎的好地方,也是许多人赞赏的好地方。

I find it hard to leave the land where I have lived for 30 years and where there are sweet memories of my childhood. 我发现很难离开这片土地,我在那里生活了30年,而且在那里有我甜美的童年记忆。

并列式,是两个或以上的定语从句相互并列,中间由and or连接,共同修饰一个先行词。相互之间不包含、不修饰,不重叠,各行其是。

3. 多重式定语从句:

Is there anything you'd like that you don't see on the shelves? 有没有你想要的,但现在货架上还没有的东西?

I like the tie you wear which your sister gave to you as birthday gift. 我喜欢你平时佩戴的你姐姐作为生日礼物送给你的那只领带。

 “多重式是指两个定语从句按先后顺序和不同层次修饰先行词。第二个定语从句的关系代词不可省略,而第一个定语从句的关系代词一般都省略,中间不能用 and 连接。再如:These are things we’re doing that don’t make sense. 这些都是我们正在做的而没有意义的事情。

4. 省略式定语从句

在含将来意义的定语从句中,我们可以省略主语和谓语的一部分(主要是情态动词和助动词),而代之以介词+关系代词+不定式的形式,叫做省略式定语从句。

I have saved a sum of money with which to buy a new car for myself.

我已经攒了一笔钱,要用这些钱为自己买一辆新车。

本句的完整形式为:I have saved a sum of money with which I'd like to buy a new car for myself.

I was trying to find a place in which to lay the new piano.

我在试图找一个能放这台新钢琴的地方。

本句的完整形式为:I was trying to find a place in which I could lay the new piano.

【特别注意】

 在这类句子里,主句的主语必须与不定式的逻辑主语一致,否则不可改为省略式定语从句。试比较:

I was trying to find a place in which to live.我在设法找一个我可以住的地方。

I was trying to find a place in which my younger brother could live. 我在设法找一个我弟弟可以住的地方。

5. 分隔式定语从句

定语从句一般紧跟在被它所修饰的先行词之后;但有时候它和先行词之间插入其他成分,使得它与先行词分隔开来,这种定语从句叫做分隔定语从句。文章中经常出现这种情况,在阅读时要注意识别从句修饰的对象。

一般说来,定语从句被分隔开来大致有以下三种情况:

①先行词与定语从句被一个状语分隔。

There are quite a few students in our school who like this athlete very much.我们学校有不少学生非常喜欢这位运动员。

The film brought the hours back to me when I was taken good care of in that far-away village. 这部电影使我回想起我在那个遥远的村庄受到良好照顾的那些时光。

②先行词与定语从句被另一个定语分隔。

My grandpa has a picture by a famous painter which was sent to him for his birthday.

我爷爷有一幅出自名家送给他作生日礼物的画。

After graduation she reached a point in her career where she had to decide what to do. 毕业后,她在职业生涯中到了一个必须决定做什么的时刻。

③先行词与定语从句被谓语分隔。

此时,先行词通常是句子的主语,因定语从句较长,主句谓语较短,为使句子结构平衡,常将定语从句移至谓语之后。

The professor entered the hall who had just presented several lectures.刚刚做完几场报告的教授进了大厅。

The days are gone when we Chinese were bullied by the invaders. 我们中国人受侵略者欺负的日子一去不复返了。

二、定语从句表达状语从句的意义

How can anyone hope to be a qualified teacher, who doesn't know what the students are thinking and demanding? 一个人如果不知道他的学生在想什么,需要什么,怎么能指望自己成为一个合格的教师呢?

在学习非限制性定语从句时,我们提到定语从句有时候可以按照并列句理解,还可以按照状语从句理解。这要求我们准确判断定语从句和主句之间的关系,并充分考虑汉语的表达习惯,做到翻译通顺流畅。就本句而言,尽管句中没有 if,但定语从句确实表达了条件句的意义,所以才按照条件状语从句翻译。从结构上看,它是某个先行词的定语从句;但从意义上看,它实际上修饰主句谓语或整个主句,起到了状语从句的作用。所以,为了理解方便,我们称之为“定语从句的形式,状语从句的意义”。这样的表达在英语中是很常见的。

1. 定语从句的形式,条件状语从句的意义

The same thing, which happened twenty years ago, would lead to disaster. (=The same thing would lead to disaster if it happened twenty years ago.)  同样一件事情,如果发生在20年前,将会导致灾难。

2. 定语从句的形式,原因状语从句的意义

He is a kind man, who is always ready to help others. (=He is a kind man because he is always ready to help others.)  他是一个好人,因为他总是乐于助人。

3. 定语从句的形式,让步状语从句的意义

Smith insisted on building another house which he had no use for. (=Smith insisted on building another house though he had no use for it.)  史密斯坚持再盖一幢房子,尽管他无此需要。

4. 定语从句的形式,目的状语从句的意义

He wishes to write an article that will attract public attention to the matter. (=He wishes to write an article so that it will attract public attention to the matter.)  他想写篇文章,以便引起公众对此事的关注。

5. 定语从句的形式,结果状语从句的意义

My car broke down halfway, which caused me to come late. (=My car broke down halfway so that it caused me to come late.) 我的车在半路上出了故障,结果使我来晚了。

6. 定语从句的形式,时间状语从句的意义

I saw Mr. Wang who was wandering on the street. (=I saw Mr. Wang when he was wandering on the street.)  王先生在街上散步的时候,我见到了他。

  • 发表于 2021-07-12 08:48
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  • 分类:定语从句

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刘永科
刘永科

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