allow(=permit)后跟v-ing形式作宾语探究(一)

allow(=permit)后跟v-ing形式作宾语

allow=permit)后跟v-ing形式作宾语探究(一)

——可以后接V-ing形式作宾语的动词大盘点

 

  对于allow后面是否可以接V-ing形式作宾语,中外语法学家莫衷一是,仍未形成一致的意见。有的认为allow后面可以接V-ing形式作宾语,有的则意见相左。

  首先来看《朗文当代英汉双解词典》第一版Longman English-Chinese Dictionary of Contemporary English(朗文出版(远东)有限公司一九八八年初版)P31allow 1[T1,4;V3] to letsomebodydo something; let(something) be done; permit允许:They do not allow it/ smoking/you to smoke. 他们不准/不准抽烟/不准你抽烟。

  笔者注:查阅该词典后面的Table of codes 文法分析代码可知:T4指该及物动词后面可以 followed by the -ing form。即该词典认为allow后面可以接V-ing形式作宾语,此处的smoking属于v-ing形式。然而该词典P1355上却有:smoking 1 nuthe practice or habit of sucking in tobacco smoke from cigarettes pipe etc. 吸烟;抽烟.可见,此处smoking为名词。可以说由此例证来证明allow后面可以接v-ing形式作宾语,说服力大大降低。

其次来看《朗文当代高级英语辞典》(英英英汉双解)Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English English-Chinese)(朱原等译商务印书馆19988月第1版)P35allow 1+v-ingWalking on the grass is not allowed. 不准践踏草地。

笔者注:该词典认为allow后面可以接V-ing形式作宾语,然而却收录V-ing形式在被动句中用作主语的例句,犹抱琵琶半遮面,为何不光明正大地收录allow后接V-ing形式的例句呢?是没有这样的例句,还是其他什么原因,令人费解。

  再来看《朗文当代高级英语辞典》(英英英汉双解)新版Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (外语教学与研究出版社20043月第1版)P47 allow词条没有明确标注allow之后可以接V-ing形式作宾语,只有allow swimming/smoking/talking etc 及一个例句:We do not allow eating in the classrooms.我们不允许在教室里吃东西。而在P620 enjoy词条明确标注 enjoy doing sth

  再来看《朗文当代高级英语辞典》(英英英汉双解)(第四版光盘版)Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English English-Chinese)(Fourth Edition),allow词条没有明确标注allow之后可以接V-ing形式作宾语,只有一个例句:We don’t allow diving in the pool.泳池内不准跳水。然而在该词典可以查到diving作为名词的单独词条。同时在enjoy词条明确标注 enjoy doing sth

  再来看《Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English》(5th Edition)(光盘版)allow词条:

1 to let someone do or have something, or let something happen SYN permit

allow somebody/something to do something

My parents wouldn’t allow me to go to the party.

Women are not allowed to enter the mosque.

Don’t allow your problems to dominate your life.

allow somebody something

Passengers are allowed one item of hand luggage each.

How much time are we allowed?

allow somebody in/out/up etc

I don’t allow the cat in the bedroom.

The audience is not allowed backstage.

something is (not) allowed (= something is or is not officially permitted)

Are dictionaries allowed in the exam?

We don’t allow diving in the pool.

笔者注:从以上可以看出,该词典没有明确标注allow之后可以接V-ing形式作宾语,仅给出一个后接diving的例句,但在该词典可以查到diving作名词的单独词条。

  再来看《朗文当代高级英语辞典》(英英英汉双解)(第6版)Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (外语与教学研究出版社 20195月第1版)P65 allow词条既没有明确标注allow之后可以接V-ing形式作宾语,也没有收录allow后接V-ing形式作宾语的例句。

最后来看Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Online

(https://www.ldoceonline.com/) allow词条:

1 CAN DO SOMETHING  to let someone do or have something, or let something happen SYN permit

  allow somebody to do something My parents wouldn’t allow me to go to the party.   Students are not allowed to eat in class.

  something is allowed (=something is officially permitted) Are dictionaries allowed in the exam?

  allow somebody something Passengers are allowed one item of hand luggage each.  How much time are we allowed?

  allow yourself something He allowed himself the occasional glass of wine.

  allow something We don’t allow diving in the pool.

  allow somebody in/out/up etc I don’t allow the cat in the bedroom.  The audience is not allowed backstage.

  somebody should be allowed to do something Students should be allowed to make their own decisions.

allow something to do something Don’t allow your problems to dominate your life.

GRAMMAR: Comparison allow

Something is allowed:

Working from home is allowed.

Examples from the Corpus

We do not allow eating in the classrooms

笔者注:从以上可以看出该词典既没有明确标注allow之后可以接V-ing形式作宾语,也没有收录allow后接V-ing形式的例句。我们只能判断该词典认为allow之后不可以接V-ing形式作宾语。

从《朗文当代高级英语辞典》系列的发展历程可以看出:起初,该辞典明确标注allow之后可以接V-ing形式作宾语。但是后来却不再标注allow之后可以接V-ing形式作宾语,是否我们可以判定allow之后不可以接V-ing形式作宾语。     

与此相反,《牛津高阶英汉双解词典》系列对于“allow之后是否可以接V-ing形式作宾语“确是一波三折,从最初的”不可以“到由Sally Wehmeier主编的第六版和第七版的”可以“再到第八版和第九版的”不可以“。请看:

1.A.S. Hornby The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary《现代高级英汉双解辞典》(英汉版牛津大学出版社(香港)一九七八第十版)P29allow 1.VP1310let; permit: 允许;许可: Smoking is not allowed here. 此处禁止吸烟。

笔者注:查阅该辞典前面的“动词类型撮要”可知:标明VP 1的动词可以与一个简单的直接受词(名词或代名词)连用:标着VP3的动词后面可以跟名词或代名词加上(notto及不定词;标着VP10的动词后面可以跟受词及副词或副词片语(包括意义为in order to…之副词性不定词)。但是没有明确标注allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语,也没有收录allow后接v-ing形式作宾语的例句。

2.A.S. Hornby原著Oxford Advanced Learner’s English-Chinese Dictionary《牛津高阶英汉双解词典》(第四版)(商务印书馆 19979月第1) P36allow  1(b[Tn] let (sth) be done or happen 容许(某事物)发生: We don’t allow smoking in our house. 在我们家里不容许吸烟。

笔者注:查阅该词典后面的“动词模式表”可知: Tn“Transitive verb及物动词 + noun 名词。即该词典认为此处allow作及物动词,后面接名词smoking作宾语;在该词典P1433可以查到smoking作名词的单独词条。

3.A.S. Hornby原著Sally Wehmeier主编 Oxford Advanced Learner’s English-Chinese Dictionary《牛津高阶英汉双解词典》(第六版)(商务印书馆 20048月第2) P44A.S. Hornby原著Sally Wehmeier总编辑Oxford Advanced Learner’s English-Chinese Dictionary《牛津高阶英汉双解词典》(第七版)(商务印书馆 20094月第3) P52allow  1 to let sb/sth do sth; to let sth happen or be done 允许;准许

[v -ing] We do not allow smoking in the hall. 我们不准有人在大厅内吸烟。

  笔者注:不知道什么原因,由主编Sally Wehmeier了接受allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语。

4.Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary8th edition光盘版© Oxford University Press, 2010allow词条:1  to let sb/sth do sth; to let sth happen or be done

~ sb to do sth    His parents won't allow him to stay out late.

   He  is not allowed to  stay out late.

  They shouldn't be allowed to get away with it.

~ sth to do sth   He allowed his mind to wander.

~ yourself to do sth   She won't allow herself to be dictated to.

~ sth   Smoking is not allowed in the hall.

  We do not allow smoking in the hall.  

 笔者注:“Smoking is not allowed in the hall. ” “We do not allow smoking in the hall. ”两个例句放在”allow sth”用法之下,可以推断该词典认为这两句中的“smoking”为名词,而不是v-ing形式。

5. A.S. Hornby原著Margaret Deuter Oxford 策划编辑Advanced Learner’s English-Chinese Dictionary牛津高阶英汉双解词典》(第九版)(商务印书馆 20183月第5) P55 allow词条既没有明确标注allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语,也没有收录allow后接v-ing形式作宾语的例句。仅有“Smoking is not  allowed in the hall. 大厅内不准吸烟。“

6.Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries

(https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/)

 之一Oxford Advanced American Dictionary

1 to let someone or something do something; to let something happen or be done

allow somebody to do something His parents won't allow him to stay out late.

He is not allowed to stay out late.

They shouldn't be allowed to get away with it.

allow something to do something He allowed his mind to wander.

allow yourself to do something She won't allow herself to be dictated to.

allow something Smoking is not allowed in the hall.

We do not allow smoking in the hall.

之二Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

​ 1 to let somebody/something do something; to let something happen or be done

 allow somebody/something to do something His parents won't allow him to stay out late.

He allowed his mind to wander.

The law allowed companies to dismiss workers without any reason.

 be allowed to do something He is not allowed to stay out late.

Students are only allowed to use the equipment under supervision.

This research must be allowed to continue.

 allow yourself to do something He refused to allow himself to be kept quiet.

She won't allow herself to be dictated to.

 be allowed Eating is not allowed in the classrooms.

He received the maximum sentence allowed by law.

 allow something We do not allow eating in the classrooms.

笔者注:没有明确标注allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语smokingeating 均可在该词典找到作为名词的单独词条。

以上《朗文当代高级英语辞典》系列和《牛津高阶英汉双解词典》系列在中国广大的英语专家、学者及师生心目中占有举足轻重的地位,说是泰山北斗也不为过。他们的观点看法影响至深,因此由中国人编著的英语语法、词典等工具书基本上都会受到他们的影响,接受他们的观点看法,当然也会受到其他的影响。

下面根据把笔者能搜集到的工具书是否认可“allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语“进行分类:

一、不认可allow可以后接V-ing形式作宾语的工具书:

(一)外国人编著的工具书(按照出版年代先后顺序)

1. H. Poutsma A Grammar of Late Modern English (part 1 The Sentence Second Half The Composite Sentence) P848-854:

18. The gerund-construction appears to be used practically to the exclusion of the infinitive-construction:

a) after some verbs denoting some activity of the reasoning faculties and the uttering of its results, especially such as indicate an acknowledge (for the reverse), a declaring, or a remembering. …The following verbs have been found followed by a gerund(-clause): admit, deny, disclaim, doubt, forswear, mention, own, reject, report,

b) after many verbs not answering to a general description, among others:

adore, advocate, anticipate, ape, attribute, avoid, bar, boast, chuck, contemplate, defer, deprecate, (have) done, drop, encourage, entail, escape, evade, excite, facilitate, fancy, feel, finish, funk, give over(up), grudge, imagine, imply, include, justify,  leave off, lose, necessitate, postpone, practise, provoke, put off, relish, renounce, resent, resist, resume, risk, sanction, set up, shirk, stop, tolerate, try, understand, urge, withhold.

2. Randolph Quirk A Grammar of Contemporary English (Second impression (with corrections)1973) P 836  (b) Verbs with -ing participle:

acknowledge, admit(to), avoid, consider, contemplate, defer, deny, detest, dislike, escape, evade, facilitate, fancy, favour, finish, give up, cannot help, include,  keep(on), don’t mind, miss, postpone, practise, put off, resent, resist, risk, shun, cannot stand, stop, suggest, etc.

3. A HANDBOOK OF ENGLISH GRAMMARby R. W. ZANDVOORT Seventh Edition 1975 P2667. The gerund is used, to the exclusion of the infinitivein the following cases:

a. as part of a prepositional adjunct.

b. as an object or adjunct to a number of verbs and verbal phrases, of which the principal are:  to avoid, to burst out, to deny, to detest, to enjoy, to escape, to fancy, to finish, to give over or up, it's no good, (I) cannot help, to keep (on), to leave off, to mind (in negative and interrogative sentences), to postpone, to put off, to resent, to stop;

c. after like and worth, which may also take non-verbal nouns, and after the phrase there is no.

4. C. E. 埃克斯利著《综合英语语法》(河北人民出版社19813月第1版)P368:下列动词的后面用动名词:

advise(建议、劝告), avoid(避免), consider(考虑), delay(耽搁、延误), deny(否定、否认), detest(痛恨), dislike(不喜欢、厌恶), endure(忍受), enjoy(喜爱), escape(逃脱、逃避),excuse(原谅),fancy(想象、喜爱),finish(完成),forbid(禁止),imagine(想象、设想),  mind(介意), miss(错过), postpone(推迟), practise(练习), risk(冒险干),  stop(停止),suggest(建议),understand(懂、通晓)。

5. A .S. Hornby 刘贤彬译《英语句型和惯用法》(商务印书馆19813月第3版)P87:用于VP6C(根据该书P31VP6C主语+及物动词动名词(短语))的动词有:admitadvise, advocate, avoid, begin, begrudge, consider, contemplate, continue, defend, defer, deny, describe, discontinue, dislike, enjoy, entail, excuse, face, fancy, finish, forbid, forgive, grudge, hate, (can’t )help, imagine, intend, involve, justify, like, love, mean, mind, miss, necessitate, postpone, prefer, prevent, propose, recall, recollect, recommend, regret, remember, report, resist, start, suggest, try, understand.

6. Harold E. Palmer方廷钰等译《英语常用词语法词典》(外语教学与研究出版社198412月第1版)P13 allow词条既没有明确标注allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语,也没有收录allow后接v-ing形式作宾语的例句。仅有“allow sg.[smoking, drinking, etc] 准许做某事【吸烟、喝酒】(见V. P. 4而查阅本书P689可知:V. P. 4VERB PATTERN 4 VerbDIRECT OBJECT

7. R A Close A reference grammar for students of English (Eighth impression 1985) P199: B6a. Verbs that fit into the pattern I enjoy listening are

admit, advise, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, bear, begin, cease, consider, continue, delay, deny,  detest,  dislike, enjoy, escape, face, fancy, favour, finish, forget, hate, can’t help, imagine, intend, keep(on), like, love,  mind, miss, omit, postpone, practise, prefer, propose, recollect, recommend, regret, remember, resent,  resist, risk, start, stop, suggest, try.

8. 伦道夫•夸克等著《英语语法大全》(华东师范大学出版社19898月第一版)P1648-1649:作宾语的无主语-ing分词分句:

i)(can’tbear, begrudge, detest, dislike, dread, enjoy, (not) fancy, hate, like, loathe,  love, (not) mind, miss, regret, relish, resent, (can’t) stand

(ii)cease, commence, continue, quit, resume, start, stop

(iii)admit, avoid, confess, consider, deny, deserve, discourage, envisage, escape, forget, (can’t) help, imagine, involve, justify, need, permit, propose, recall, recommend, remember, repent, requite, risk, save, try, want

9. L.G. Alexander著《朗曼英语语法》(外语教学与研究出版社19911月第1版)P601:如想在下列动词后紧跟另一个动词,这第二个动词只能是-ing形式,绝不可用不定式:admit(承认),appreciate(欣赏), avoid(避免), celebrate(庆祝),  consider(考虑), contemplate(注视), defer(推迟), delay(耽搁), deny(否认), detest(痛恨), discontinue(停止), dislike(不喜欢), dispute(不同意),enjoy(喜爱), it entails)(必须),escape(逃脱),excuse(原谅),explain(解释), fancy(喜爱),feel like(想要)finish(完成),forgive(原谅),can’t help (不禁)hinder(阻碍),imagine(想象), it involve(s)(涉及)keep(保持),  loathe(厌恶), it means)(意味),mention(提及), mind(介意), miss(错过,免于), it necessitate(s) (使成为必要)pardon (饶恕)postpone(推迟), practise(练习), prevent(阻止), recall(召回), report(报告), resent(怨恨), resist(抵制), risk(冒险), suggest(建议),understand(理解)。

10. Digby Beaumont & Colin Granger The Heinemann ELT English Grammar 1992  P131: Verb + -ing form : admit, avoid, consider, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, fancy, feel like, finish, give up, can't help,  imagine, keep on, involve, mind, miss, postpone, practice, put off, risk, stand, suggest.

11. Stuart B. Flexner主编《兰登书屋韦氏英汉大学词典》(中国商务印书馆 19974月第版)P64 allow词条既没有明确标注allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语,也没有收录allow后接v-ing形式作宾语的例句。

12. L.G. Alexander Longman English Grammar Practice (for intermediate students) (eleventh impression 1998) P236Verb + the -ing form

1.Some verbs are followed only by the -ing form, not by a to-infinitive: e.g.

admitappreciate, avoid, consider, delay, deny, detest, dislike, enjoy, explain, fancyfeel likefinishforgivecan’t help, imagine, it involveskeepmention, mind, misspardonpostpone, practise, preventrecall,  resent, resist, risk, stop, suggestunderstand.

13. John Sinclair 主编《COLLINS COBUILD英语语法大全》(任绍曾主译商务印书馆 19991月第1版)P229:下列动词与现在分词连用,不与to-不定式连用:admitadore, appreciate, avoid, celebrate, commence,  consider, contemplate, defer, delay, deny, describe, detest, discontinue, dislike, dread, endure, enjoy, explain, fancy, finish, go, imagine, keep, lie, loathe, mention, mind, miss, postpone, practise, recall, report, resent, resist, risk, sit, stand, stop, suggest.

14. Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency (by Richard Side 2000) P240: We can use a number of verbs followed by another verb in the -ing form.

adore, justify, like/dislike, stat/stop, contemplate, report, quit, forget, mention, detest, resume, remember, suggest, can’t bear/stand, keep, recall, describe, (don’t) mind, go on, dread, advise, resent, carry on, regret, recommend, tolerate, give up, anticipate, forbid, miss, finish, risk, admit, fancy, keep on, consider, deny.

15. John Eastwood Oxford Practice GrammarTenth impression 2002

Unit 62 Verb + to-infinitive or verb + ing-form

These verbs are followed by an ing-form.

admit, avoid, can’t face, can't help, can't resist, can't stand, carry on, consider, delay, deny, detest, dislike, enjoy, excuse, fancy, finish, give up, imagine, involve, justify, keep (on), mention, mind, postpone, practise, put off, resent, risk, save, suggest, tolerate

16. Understanding and Using English Grammar by Betty Schrampfer Azar Third Edition 2002  P318: admit, advise, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, can’t bear,  begin, complete, consider, continue, delay ,deny, discuss, dislike, enjoy, finish, forget, hate, can’t help, keep, like, love, mention, mind, miss, postpone, practice, prefer, quit, recall, recollect, recommend, regret, remember, resent, resist, risk, can’t stand, start, stop, suggest, tolerate, try, understand.

17. 《麦克米伦英汉双解词典》Macmillan Essential English-Chinese Dictionary(外语教学与研究出版社 20054月第1版)P27  allow词条既没有明确标注allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语,也没有收录allow后接v-ing形式作宾语的例句。仅有“I’m sorry, sir, but smoking is not allowed.对不起,先生,这里禁止抽烟。

18. 杨信彰等译《麦克米伦高阶英汉双解词典》(Macmillan English-Chinese Dictionary for Advanced Learners (外语教学与研究出版社 200510月第1版)P55allow词条既没有明确标注allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语,也没有收录allow后接v-ing形式作宾语的例句。仅有“I’m sorry, sir, but smoking is not allowed.对不起,先生,不准抽烟。

19. English Grammar Reference & Practice 2005 P273: The gerund is always used after

3. Phrasal verbs: burst out, give up, go on, leave off, keep o, put off etc.

4.Shch verbs as: avoid, consider, delay, deny, escape, excuse, fancy, finish,  forgive, include, include, justify, mind, miss, postpone, practise, recall, recollect,  resent, risk.

20. 【日】绵贯阳等著申勇译《现代英语语法例解手册》(修订版)(科学出版社20062月第一版)P521:只用动名词作宾语的动词: admit(承认),avoid(逃避),consider(考虑),deny(否定),enjoy(享受),escape(逃犯),excuse(宽恕),fancy(想象),finish(结束),give up(放弃), involve(连累)mind(介意),postpone(延迟),put off(延期)stop停止)

21. 《新牛津英汉双解大词典》(上海外语教育出版社20071月第1版)P53 allow词条既没有明确标注allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语,也没有收录allow后接v-ing形式作宾语的例句。

22. 《柯林斯高阶英汉双解词典》(商务印书馆出版 200810月第1版)P46allow词条既没有明确标注allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语,也没有收录allow后接v-ing形式作宾语的例句。仅有Smoking will not be allowed. 不准吸烟。

23. Grammar for Teachers (A Guide to American English for Native and Non-Native Speakers) (by Andrea DeCapua 2008) P143: Common Verbs followed by Gerunds: acknowledge, admit, appreciate, avoid, consider, contemplate, deny, delay, discuss, enjoy, finish, keep, imagine, include, mind, mention, miss, omit, postpone, practice, put, quit, recall, recommend, regret, remember, resist, resume, risk, suggest, tolerate, understand.

24. Mark Foley Longman Advanced Learners’ Grammar (2008) P142: Verb + -ing form : admit, appreciate, avoid, burst out, can’t help, consider, contemplate, defer, delay, deny, detest, dislike, endure, enjoy, escape, excuse, face, fancy, feel like, finish, give up, imagine, involve, justify, keep (on), leave off, mention, mind, miss, postpone, practise, prevent, put off, put sb off, recall, recommend, resent, resist, risk, save, suggest, tolerate, understand.

25.【日】田中茂范等《外研社英汉多功能词典》(外语教学与研究出版社20087月第1版)P58 allow词条既没有明确标注allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语,也没有收录allow后接v-ing形式作宾语的例句。

26. Longman Dictionary of American English (This special edition published 2009) P27allow词条既没有明确标注allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语,也没有收录allow后接v-ing形式作宾语的例句。仅有“Smoking is not allowed. ”

27. 《朗文英汉多功能双解词典》(第4版)Active Study English-Chinese Dictionary 4th Edition (外语与教学研究出版社20116月第1版)P35: allow词条既没有明确标注allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语,也没有收录allow后接v-ing形式作宾语的例句。仅有“Smoking is not allowed in the library. 图书馆里不准吸烟。

28. 《柯林斯COBUILD 高级英汉双解学习词典》(外语教学与研究出版社20117月第1版)P71allow词条既没有明确标注allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语,也没有收录allow后接v-ing形式作宾语的例句。仅有“Smoking will not be allowed. 吸烟将被禁止。

29. 《新牛津英汉双解大词典》(第2版)(上海外语教育出版社20133月第1版)P54 allow词条既没有明确标注allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语,也没有收录allow后接v-ing形式作宾语的例句。

30. The American Heritage Dictionary Of The English Language Third Edition allow词条没有明确标注allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语, 仅有 ”We allow smoking only in restricted areas.”

31. Mark Nettle and Diana Hopkins Developing Grammar in Context (intermediate) P134: Verb+ -ing form

These verbs are followed by the -ing form of the second verb.

avoid, can’t help, can’t stand, consider, deny, enjoy, feel like, finish, give up, hate, imagine, keep, like, love, mind, practise, prefer, put off, suggest, understand.

32. Michael Vince Macmillan English Grammar in Context (Intermediate) P58 verbs of feeling and opinion etc folIowed by -ing

admit, avoid, consider, deny, dislike, enjoy, fancy, feel like, finish, can't help,

involve, keep, mean, mind, miss, practise, risk, can't stand, suggest.

33. 麦克米伦英语词典(MED(https://www.macmillandictionary.com/) allow词条没有明确标注allow可以后接v-ing形式作宾语, 仅有I’m sorry, sir, but smoking is not allowed.”

  • 发表于 2022-07-01 18:18
  • 阅读 ( 334 )
  • 分类:动名词

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