高考英语构词法参考

高考英语构词法参考

高考英语构词法参考

 

(以近10年高考真题大数据为依据编写)

 

1. 英语最基本的构词法有三种,即派生法(通过添加前缀或后缀构成新的单词,如work→worker)、合成法(由两个或多个单词合在一起构成新的单词,如class+room→classroom)、转化法(由一种词类转化为另一种词类,如water n.→water v.)。根据近10年的高考题情况来看,后面两种比较容易理解,一般不会造成理解困难,同时一般也不会出现在语法填空题中,所以本文主要介绍派生法构词的常用词缀(前缀和后缀)。

2. 本文归纳的是在近10年高考题中比较常用且比较重要的词缀(前缀和后缀),所列举的单词例证全部来自近10年的高考真题——高考考的才是最重要的,高考不考或很少考的,随便找一本词典或构词法方面的书就可找出千千万万个,这些暂时不是你学习的重点。注意,不是越多越好,有用”“会考才是硬道理!

3. 本文所给单词例证均没有给出中文意思,目的是希望同学们自己根据词缀来推测单词的词义——这是一种很有用的能力,同学们在平时一定要加强训练。根据2017年版《高中英语课程标准》(第121页),可根据构词法推导出的部分名词、形容词、副词等在高考题中出现是不会视为生词的(即不会夹注中文),也就是说,本文所列的单词绝大部分虽然在课标词汇中找不到,但它们在高考题中都出现过,且都没有夹注中文——这些词就是所谓的假超纲词。经大数据统计,每年高考题中都有大约50来个假超纲词(具体情况请参见《高考英语备考1·速效编》的近三年全国卷词汇分析与分类统计),这些词给那些完全没有构词法知识的同学造成了不少阅读困难,比如2021新高考全国卷阅读理解A出现了pricey一词(典型的假超纲词),如果你毫无构词法知识,你一定不认识它,其实它是由名词price(价格)加后缀-y 构成的派生词,意思是昂贵的

4. 若同学们对本文所列派生词的词义没有把握,你可以到《高考英语备考1·速效编》的正文部分查找——这可能会花你一点点时间,但这是完全值得的,这样你不仅可以强化记忆,而且还可能会读到这个单词在高考中是如何使用的以及相关的真题例句和有关说明。

5. 根据《高考英语备考1·速效编》正文查找各派生词词义的实例与方法:

你若对employee这个单词的意思没有把握,你可以在该书正文中查到employ,然后在employ10年高考题中出现过的派生词中查到employee的意思(受雇者”“雇员)。经大数据统计,employee在近10年的高考题中共出现过42次。在查阅过程中,你还会在该书对employee的解释中读到一些相关说明(如在高考听力题中考查对话双方的人物关系时,经常用到employer and employee”……)。

你若对non-profit这个单词的意思没有把握,你可以在该书正文中查到profit,然后在profit10年高考题中出现过的派生词中查到non-profit的意思(非营利性的)。经大数据统计,non-profit在近10年的高考题中共出现过7次。顺便说一句,如果你喜欢一目十行的话,你可能还会在该书non-profit的下面一行无意中读到not-for-profit,它也表示非营利性的,但多用于美国英语。经大数据统计,non-for-profit在近10年的高考题中共出现过3次。

你若对over-consumption这个单词不熟悉,你可以在该书正文中查到over,在该词条,你不仅可以查到over-consumption的意思是过度消费,而且还可以查到大量类似的派生词及相关真题例句,如overconfidence, over-consumption, over-crowded, overeat, over-emphasize, over-learn, overpraise, over-protection, overuse, overweight, overjoyed, overcoat, overtime, overhead等(它们都是所谓的假超纲词)。

 

一、高考英语重要前缀

1. 表示否定

▲dis-表示”“,用于某些名词、动词或形容词前面,如honest(诚实的)→dishonest(不诚实的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

disable, disabled, disability, disadvantage, disadvantaged, disagree, disagreement, disappear, disappearance, disapproval, disapprove, disapproving, disbelief, disbelieve, discomfort, discover, discovery, dishonest, dishonesty, dishonourable, dislike, disqualification, disrespect, disrespectful, dissatisfied等。

▲il-表示”“,用于某些以l开头的形容词或名词前面,如logical(合逻辑的)→illogical(不合逻辑的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

illegal, illegally等。

▲im-表示”“,用于某些以b, m, p开头的形容词或名词前面,如polite(有礼貌的)→impolite(不礼貌的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

imbalance, immoral, impatience, impatient, imperfection, impolite, impossible, impractical, improper等。

▲in-表示”“,用于某些形容词以及由形容词转化来的词前面,如accurate(准确的)→inaccurate(不准确的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

inaccessible, inaccurate, inappropriate, incapable, incomparable, incompetence, incompetently, incorrect, incorrectly, independence, independent, independently, indirect, indirectly, inexpensive, inexperienced, inflexible, informal, insecure, insincere, intolerance, invisible等。

▲ir-表示”“,用于某些以r为首字母的形容词或名词前面,如regular(有规律的)→irregular(无规律的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

irrelevant, irresponsible等。

▲non-表示”“,用于某些形容词或名词前面,指不具有某一特质或特定方面(大多数含non-的派生词在英国英语里要加连字符,在美国英语里有时可以不用连字符),如smoking(允许吸烟的)→non-smoking / nonsmoking(禁止吸烟的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

non-governmental, non-native, non-official, non-profit等。

▲un-表示”“,用于某些形容词、副词或动词前面,表示其相反的意思,如fair(公平的)→unfair(不公平的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

unacknowledged, unaffected, unannounced, unattainable, unattended, unaware, unbalanced, unbearable, unbelievable, uncertain, uncertainty, unchallenged, unclaimed, unclear, uncomfortable, uncommon, uncontrollable, uncontrolled, unconventional, undeadly, undecided, undeniable, undisturbed, undivided, undoubtedly, uneasy, unemployment, unexpected, unexpectedly, unfailingly, unfamiliar, unfit, unfocused, unfold, unforgettable, unfortunately, unfriendly, unhappy, unhurried, unhurt, unimportant, uninspired, unintended, unintentionally, uninterrupted, unkind, unknowingly, unknown, unlike, unlikely, unlimited, unmarried, unnecessary, unnoticeable, unnoticed, unobtainable, unoccupied, unopened, unpack, unpleasant, unpopular, unpredictable, unprepared, unpublished, unquestionably, unrealistic, unreasonable, unrelated, unreliable, unresolved, unsafe, unsatisfied, unsettled, unskilful / unskillful, unspoken, unstable, unsuccessful, unsuitable, untidy, untouched, unusual, unusually, unwanted, unwashed, unwillingly, unwise等。

2. 表示状态等

▲a-表示状态中”“处于情况”“方式等,用于构成形容词或副词,如blaze(大火)→ablaze(燃烧的,着火的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

afraid, ahead, alike, alive, alone, aloud, apart, ashamed, asleep, awake等。

3. 表示自动等

▲auto-表示自动的,与名词、动词或形容词连用,如record(录制)→auto-record(自动录制)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

auto-focus等。

4. 表示使役等

▲en- / em-表示使”“使成为”“使处于状态”“置于之上等(em-主要用于以b, m, p开头的单词之前),用于某些名词或动词前面,如slave(奴隶)→enslave(使成为奴隶)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

enable, encourage, endanger, endangered, enlarge, enrich等。

另外,该前缀还可表示放入”“包住,如近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有encase(包起,裹起,把装箱)等。

5. 表示非常

▲extra-表示非常”“十分”“特别,相当于verymore than,与形容词连用,如strong(强壮的)→extra-strong(特别强壮的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

extra-large, extra-special, extra-tall等。

6. 表示前部等

▲fore-有两个用法,一是表示前端的”“位于前部的,二是表示先于”“预先,如leg(腿)→foreleg(前腿),see(看见)→foresee(预见)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

forecast, forehead等。

7. 表示相互

▲inter-表示相互”“共同”“之间,与名词、动词或形容词连用,如city(城市)→intercity(城际的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

interaction, international, Internet, interpersonal, interstate, interview等。

8. 表示千

▲kilo-表示,与thousand同义,与名词连用,如watt(瓦特)kilowatt(千瓦)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

kilogram, kilometer等。

9. 表示中间

▲mid-表示中期”“中间,与名词连用,winter(冬季)→mid-winter(仲冬)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

Mid-Autumn, mid-July, midnight, mid-1980s等。

10. 表示微小

▲micro-表示微小的”“微量的,与名词连用,如organism(生物)→microorganism(微生物)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

microbiologist, microwave等。

▲mini-表示小的”“小型的,与名词连用,如skirt(裙子)→miniskirt(超短裙)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

minibus, mini-workshop等。

11. 表示错误

▲mis-表示坏的”“错误的(地)”“相反的(地),用于构成动词或名词,如fortune(运气)→misfortune(不幸)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

miscalculate, misguided, misjudgement, mispronounce, mispronunciation, misunderstand等。

12. 表示前后

▲pre-表示,与beforeearlier than同义,与名词或形容词连用,如war(战争)→pre-war(战前的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

pre-college, pre-industrial, pre-paid, pre-recorded等。

▲post-表示,与afterlater than同义,与名词或形容词连用,如tax(税)→post-tax(税后的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

post-industrial, postwar等。

13. 表示重复

▲re-表示”“等,与动词、名词、形容词等连用,如read(读)→reread(重读)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

readjust, reassess, reconsider, reconstruction, rediscover, reopen, reproduce, rewrite等。

14. 表示超级

▲super-表示”“”“超级,与形容词或名词连用,如tanker(油轮)→supertanker(超级油轮)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

superhero, superhuman, superman, supermarket, supermodel, superpower, superstar等。

15. 表示远距离等

▲tele-表示远距离的,可转指电话的”“电视的的,与名词或形容词连用,如scope(观测仪器)→telescope(望远镜)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

telecommunication, telephone, television等。

16. 表示过于

▲over-表示”“过于”“,与动词、名词或形容词连用,如excited(激动的)→over-excited(过于激动的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

over-consumption, over-crowded, overeat, over-emphasize, overlearn, overpraise, over-protection, overuse, overweight等。

 

二、高考英语重要后缀

1. 用于构成名词

1)表示行为者

▲-er通常用于动词后面构成名词,表示做某动作的人或物以及从事某工作的人,如dream(做梦)→dreamer(做梦的人,梦想家)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

admirer, advertiser, announcer, attacker, babysitter, barkeeper, beginner, builder, butcher, buyer, carrier, cleaner, climber, composer, consumer, container, controller, cooker, dancer, designer, dishwasher, diver, dreamer, drinker, driver, dryer, employer, eraser, explorer, exporter, farmer, firefighter, folder, follower, freezer, gardener, heater, helper, hiker, hunter, importer, interviewer, joker, killer, labourer, lawyer, leader, learner, lecturer, listener, locker, loser, manager, murderer, observer, organizer, painter, performer, player, poster, presenter, preserver, printer, producer, programmer, provider, publisher, reader, recorder, reminder, reporter, researcher, reviewer, rider, router, rubber, runner, ruler, searcher, seeker, seller, server, settler, shopper, singer, sleeper, smoker, speaker, subscriber, supplier, supporter, swimmer, talker, taster, taxpayer, teacher, teller, trader, trainer, traveler, user, viewer, wait-er, washer, watcher, winner, worker, writer等。

除以上用法外,-er还可表示属于的人或物”“有联系的人或物”“特性或外形的人或物等,此时也可用于名词或形容词后面,如foreigner, prisoner, stranger, sweater, villager等。

另外,-er还可表示某地的人(用在地名后面),如New Yorker(纽约人),Londoner(伦敦人),但这要视习惯而定,比如巴黎人不是Pariser,而是Parisian(该词在2021新全国卷I中多次出现)。

▲-or表示做某事的人或物或从事某工作的人,如visit(参观)→visitor(参观者,游客)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

actor, calculator, collector, competitor, conductor, contractor, contributor, creator, detector, director, distributor, editor, educator, instructor, inventor, operator, projector, sailor, survivor, translator, visitor等。

有个别单词既可用-er也可用-or,如adviser / advisor(顾问)。

▲-ar表示做某动作的人或从事某工作的人。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

liar, scholar等。

▲-ist主要表示做某事的人或从事某工作的人(如typist 打字员),也可表示某种乐器的演奏者(如pianist 钢琴家)、某种机器或车辆的操作者(如bicyclist 骑自行车的人)、有某种信仰的人(如socialist 社会主义者)、具有某种品质的人(如optimist 乐观主义者)等。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

artist, biologist, chemist, columnist, communist, cyclist, dentist, dramatist, economist, environmentalist, journalist, motorist, novelist, physicist, pianist, psychologist, receptionist, scientist, specialist, tourist, watercolorist等。

▲-an / -ian有两层意思,一是表示做某事的人或从事某工作的人(comedian 喜剧演员),二是表示归属于某地的人(如Russian 俄罗斯人)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

civilian, comedian, historian, librarian, musician, physician, politician, statistician, African, American, Asian, Australian, Canadian, European, Indian, Russian等。

▲-ee主要表示受动者(即表示的人,如employee 受雇者,雇员),有时也表示行动者(即表示做某事的人,如escapee 逃脱者)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

attendee, employee, interviewee, trainee等。

(2) 表示动作、过程、性质、状态、结果等

▲-ation用于动词后构成名词,表示行动、过程、状态、条件、结果等,如adapt(适应)→adaptation(适应,适应性)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

adaptation, civilization, clarification, combination, conservation, consideration, consultation, determination, digitalization, discrimination, examination, expectation, explanation, formation, globalization , information, organization等。

▲-tion与后缀-ation用法相同,如invent(发明)→invention(发明)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

action, addition, attention, competition, composition, connection, direction, exhibition, invention, pollution, promotion, protection, invention, solution等。

▲-sion与后缀-ation用法相同,如admit(承认)→admission(承认)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

admission, conclusion, decision, depression, discussion, division, expression, impression, permission, possession等。

▲-ance有两种情况,一是用于动词后构成名词,如accept(接受)→acceptance(接受);二是将-ant结尾的形容词变成-ance而变成名词,如important(重要的)→importance(重要性)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

acceptance, annoyance, appearance, assistance, attendance, avoidance, distance, entrance, guidance, ignorance, importance, insurance, performance, resistance, significance, tolerance等。

▲-ence-ance的变体,与后缀-ance用法相同。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

absence, competence, confidence, consequence, difference, evidence, excellence, experience, influence, intelligence, occurrence, preference, reference, silence, violence等。

▲-ment用于动词后构成名词,表示行为、过程、状态、结果等,如agree(同意)→agreement(同意)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

achievement, adjustment, advancement, advertisement, agreement, amusement, announcement, argument, arrangement, commitment, develop-ment, embarrassment, entertainment, equipment, improvement, investment, management, measurement, punishment, requirement, statement, treatment等。

▲-ness用于形容词后构成名词,表示性质、状态、品质等,如ill(生病的)→illness(疾病)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

awareness, awkwardness, bitterness, calmness, carelessness, coldness, dampness, darkness, eagerness, effectiveness, fitness, friendliness, goodness, greatness, happiness, illness, kindness, laziness, loneliness, nervousness, oddness, openness, politeness, quietness, richness, ripeness, rudeness, sadness, seriousness, shyness, sickness, sleepiness, sleeplessness, tenseness, thickness, tiredness, toughness, unfairness, vastness, wastefulness, weakness, willingness等。

注:该后缀偶尔也用于动词后构成名词,如forgive(原谅)→forgiveness(原谅)。

▲-bility用于由-ble结尾的形容词构成抽象名词,如able(有能力的)→ability(能力)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

ability, affordability, availability, credibility, disability, flexibility, possibility, probability, responsibility, stability, sustainability等。

▲-ty / -ity用于构成名词,表示性质、状态、程度等,如cruel(残忍的)→cruelty(残忍)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

certainty, complexity, cruelty, curiosity, dishonesty, equality, familiarity, generosity, honesty, maturity, nationality, necessity, popularity, poverty, publicity, reality, safety, severity, similarity, stupidity, superiority, uncertainty等。

▲-ry / -ery用于构成名词,表示场所、职业、境遇、状况、性质、行为等,如bake(烘烤)→bakery(烘烤房,面包房)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

bakery, bravery, chemistry, delivery, entry, greenery, grocery, injury, inquiry, machinery, mastery, poetry, recovery, scenery, victory等。

注:另有相似后缀-ary,表示相关的人或事”“属于的人或事,在近10年的高考题中只出现过一个这样的常用单词,即secretary(秘书)。

▲-hood用于名词或形容词后构成名词,表示状态、性质、集体、时期等,如adult(成年的,成年人)→adulthood(成年,成年时期)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

adulthood, boyhood, childhood, falsehood, motherhood, neighbourhood等。

▲-th用于构成名词,有两层意思,一是表示动作或过程,如grow(成长)→growth(成长);二是表示状态或性质,如dead(死的)→death(死)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

breadth, death, depth, growth, length, strength, truth, warmth等。

▲-ship用于名词或形容词后构成名词,表示身份、地位、性质、状态、关系等,如friend(朋友)→friendship(友谊)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

championship, citizenship, friendship, hardship, leadership, membership, ownership, partnership, readership, relationship, scholarship, sportsmanship, viewership等。

▲-al用于动词后构成名词,表示动作或过程,有时也表示做某动作的人或物,如arrive(到达)→arrival(到达,到达者,抵达物)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

approval, arrival, criminal, proposal, refusal, survival等。

▲-ing可视为由动名词转化来的名词,主要用于表示做某事的动作或过程以及相关的实例、材料、结果等,如advertise(做广告)→advertising(广告,广告业)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

advertising, beginning, boxing, building, dancing, dining, feeling, finding, gardening, heating, housing, lighting, meaning, meeting, opening, overcrowding, packaging, painting, parenting, parking, persuading, poisoning, printing, publishing, questioning, racing, rating, reading, recording, running, sailing, saving, saying, schooling, screening, setting, shopping, sightseeing, suffering, swimming, teaching, teamworking, thinking, training, understanding, warning, wedding, writing等。

▲-ful用于名词后构成名词,表示充满的量,在近10年高考题中只出现了handful一词,但像cupful, mouthful, plateful, roomful, spoonful等词也需注意一下。

2. 用于构成形容词

▲-able用于动词或名词后构成形容词,表示适于”“值得”“易于”“可以”“具有特性的等,如accept(接受)→acceptable(可接受的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

acceptable, actionable, adaptable, adjustable, affordable, agreeable, available, avoidable, believable, changeable, comfortable, comparable, considerable, controllable, distinguishable, downloadable, enjoyable, fashionable, favourable, forgettable, honourable, invaluable, knowledgeable, movable, noticeable, predictable, preferable, profitable, reachable, reasonable, reliable, remarkable, respectable, spreadable, suitable, sustainable, unbearable, uncomfortable, uncontrollable, undeniable, understandable, unforgettable, unnoticeable, unobtainable, unpredictable, unreason-able, unreliable, unremarkable, unsuitable, valuable等。

▲-al / -ial用于名词后构成形容词,表示“…”“有关”“具有特性的,如addition(加,添加)→additional(外加的,附加的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

additional, agricultural, architectural, artificial, behavioral, beneficial, central, continental, continual, conventional, conversational, criminal, cultural, developmental, educational, emotional, environmental, essential, exceptional, experimental, fictional, financial, fundamental, global, governmental, industrial, influential, informal, institutional, instructional, intentional, international, interpersonal, managerial, memorial, multigenerational, multi-national, natural, normal, nutritional, occasional, official, optional, organizational, original, parental, personal, postal, potential, presidential, professional, provincial, racial, recreational, regional, residential, seasonal, sexual, spiritual, structural, traditional, unconventional, universal等。

▲-ic用于构成形容词,表示“…”“相关的”“,如apology(道歉)→apologetic(道歉的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

academic, alcoholic, apologetic, artistic, athletic, automatic, characteristic, dramatic, dynamic, economic, electronic, energetic, enthusiastic, fantastic, heroic, historic, optimistic, organic, pessimistic, photographic, poetic, realistic, romantic, scientific, sympathetic, systematic, unrealistic, volcanic等。

▲-ical与后缀-ic用法相同,如theory(理论)→theoretical(理论上的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

analytical, biological, botanical, chemical, critical, economical, identical, impractical, logical, mathematical, mechanical, medical, musical, physical, political, practical, psychological, statistical, technical, technological, theoretical , typical等。

▲-ed可视为由动词的过去分词转化而来的形容词,有多种不同的用法,可以表示人的感受,意思是感到,如frightened(感到害怕的);可以表示被动意义,意思是,如forced(被迫的);可以表示完成意义,意思是,如developed(发达的),等等。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

ashamed, bored, challenged, complicated, concerned, confused, crowded, developed, disabled, disappointed, educated, embarrassed, encouraged, energized, excited, experienced, focussed, forced, frightened, guided, high-priced, increased, interested, learned, limited, misguided, much-needed, noted, overjoyed, personalised, pleased, prepared, required, skilled, stressed, surprised, tired, touched, unattended, uncontrolled, undecided, unnoticed, unopened, untouched, unwanted, used, valued, worried等。

注:有时用于名词或名词短语后构成形容词,表示”“为特征的”“具有特征的,如teary-eyed(眼含泪水的),long-legged(腿长的),talented(有天资的),gifted(有天赋的)等。

▲-ing可视为由动词的现在分词转化而来的形容词,有多种不同的用法,可以表示事物给人的感受,意思是令人感到,如frightening(令人害怕的);可以表示主动意义,意思是表示,如disapproving(表示反对的);可以表示进行意义,意思是正在(仍在),如burning(正在燃烧的),等等。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

aging, amazing, amusing, annoying, appealing, astonishing, boring, breathtaking, burning, challenging, comforting, coming, confusing, convincing, corresponding, deafening, demanding, depressing, deserving, developing, disappointing, disapproving, distinguishing, disturbing, dying, encouraging, energizing, engaging, exciting, existing, fattening, freezing, frightening, growing, heartbreaking, inspiring, interesting, managing, matching, missing, neighbouring, opposing, outgoing, outstanding, passing, promising, questioning, relaxing, remaining, rewarding, satisfying, shocking, supporting, surprising, surrounding, terrifying, threatening, willing, winning, working, worrying等。

▲-en用于物质名词后构成形容词,表示制的或构成的”“…样的,如earth(泥土)→earthen(泥土做的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

earthen, golden, wooden, woolen / woollen等。

▲-ful用于动词或名词之后构成形容词,表示充满”“特征的”“倾向的”“”“习惯于等,如forget(忘记)→forgetful(健忘的,有遗忘倾向的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

awful, beautiful, careful, cheerful, doubtful, faithful, fearful, forceful, forgetful, fruitful, grateful, harmful, helpful, hopeful, joyful, meaningful, painful, peaceful, powerful, regretful, respectful, restful, shameful, skilful / skillful, stressful, successful, tearful, thankful, thoughtful, truthful, useful, wasteful, watchful, wonderful等。

▲-ive用于构成形容词(通常以-tive-sive的形式出现),表示有关的”“倾向的”“特色的”“性质的,如create(创造)→creative(有创造力的,有创意的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

active, alternative, appreciative, attractive, competitive, comprehensive, cooperative, creative, decisive, defensive, distinctive, effective, expensive, expressive, imaginative, impressive, instructive, massive, negative, persuasive, positive, preventive, productive, progressive, protective, representative, selective, sensitive, supportive, transformative等。

▲-ish用于构成形容词,表示稍带”“…似的”“特征的”“…民族的”“…语的”“趋向于等,如fool(傻瓜)→foolish(愚蠢的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

British, English, reddish等。

▲-less用于名词或动词后构成形容词,表示”“没有”“”“不能等,如harm(损害,伤害,危害)→harmless(无害的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

aimless, borderless, breathless, careless, countless, defenceless / defenseless, driverless, effortless, endless, fearless, fruitless, harmless, helpless, homeless, hopeless, lifeless, limitless, meaningless, needless, painless, powerless, restless, senseless, sleepless, speechless, tasteless, useless, wireless, worthless等。

▲-ly用于名词后构成形容词,主要表示性质或特征(如lovely)和时间(如hourly)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

costly, daily, friendly, lively, lonely, lovely, monthly, motherly, orderly, timely, weekly, worldly, yearly等。

注:表示时间的daily等既可用作形容词,也可用作副词。

▲-ous用于名词或动词后构成形容词,表示充满”“(如mountainous 多山的)或具有特征的(如courageous 有勇气的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

ambitious, anxious, autonomous, continuous, courageous, curious, dangerous, delicious, enormous, envious, famous, generous, harmonious, humorous, infectious, joyous, mountainous, nervous, nutritious, obvious, poisonous , precious, previous, serious, thunderous, various等。

▲-some用于构成形容词,主要有以下用法:用于动词后表示易于”“倾向的(如quarrelsome 喜欢争吵的,动辄吵架的),用于名词后表示产生”“引起(如tiresome 令人厌烦的,烦人的)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

awesome, tiresome, troublesome等。

▲-y用于构成形容词,有多种用法,可以表示充满”“”“…很高的(如juicy 多汁的),表示特征或属性的(如sticky 黏的),表示(如icy 似冰的,冰冷的),表示想要(如sleepy 想睡的)等。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

bloody, bossy, cheery, cloudy, crazy, creamy, foggy, funny, greedy, handy, healthy, hilly, lazy, leafy, lengthy, lucky, messy, milky, muddy, needy, noisy, pricey, rainy, risky, rosy, sandy, skinny, sleepy, smelly, smoky, snowy, steamy, sticky, stormy, sunny, teary, thundery, tricky, watery, wealthy, windy等。

注:不同的单词即使表示类似的意思也可能采用不同的后缀,如hilly(多山丘的)和mountainous(多山的)。

3. 用于构成副词

▲-ly用于形容词后构成副词,主要表示方式(如briefly 简要地),有时也表示方面(如financially 财政方面,经济上)、程度(如greatly 非常)、顺序(如secondly 第二)、时间(如recently 最近)等。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

absolutely, academically, accidentally, accurately, actively, actually, admittedly, affordably, aimlessly, amazingly, angrily, annually, anxiously, apparently, appropriately, astonishingly, automatically, awfully, awkwardly, badly, barely, basically, beautifully, bitterly, blindly, briefly, brightly, brilliantly, calmly, carefully, carelessly, certainly, clearly, coldly, comfortably, commercially, commonly, completely, confidently, consequently, consistently, constantly, continually, continuously, conveniently, conventionally, correctly, creatively, critically, curiously, currently, dangerously, dearly, deeply, definitely, desperately, differently, digitally, directly, dramatically, eagerly, easily, economically, effectively, efficiently, emotionally, endlessly, energetically, entirely, enviously, environmentally, equally, especially, eventually, evidently, exactly, exceptionally, excitedly, experimentally, extremely, extraordinarily, fairly, faithfully, famously, finally, financially, firmly, firstly, fluently, fondly, formally, fortunately, freely, frequently, freshly, fully, fundamentally, generally, generously, gently, gladly, globally, gradually, greatly, happily, harmoniously, heartily, heavily, highly, honestly, hopefully, hopelessly, horribly, hugely, hurriedly, ideally, illegally, immediately, importantly, incorrectly, increasingly, independently, indirectly, individually, initially, insistently, instantly, intentionally, jokingly, kindly, largely, legally, lightly, literally, locally, loudly, luckily, madly, mainly, materially, mentally, merely, mildly, mistakenly, morally, naturally, necessarily, nicely, normally, obviously, occasionally, oddly, officially, originally, painfully, particularly, partly, patiently, peacefully, perfectly, permanently, personally, physically, pleasantly, politely, politically, poorly, popularly, possibly, potentially, practically, precisely, preferably, presently, previously, primarily, privately, probably, professionally, progressively, properly, proudly, publicly, purely, purposefully, purposely, quickly, quietly, randomly, rapidly, rarely, readily, reasonably, recently, regularly, relatively, remarkably, remotely, repeatedly, reportedly, respectively, restlessly, richly, rudely, sadly, safely, scientifically, secondly, secretly, securely, seemingly, selectively, separately, seriously, severely, sharply, shortly, significantly, silently, similarly, simply, sincerely, skilfully / skillfully, slightly, slowly, smartly, smoothly, socially, softly, specially, specifically, statistically, strangely, strictly, strongly, stupidly, successfully, suddenly, supposedly, surely, surprisingly, sweetly, sympathetically, tearfully, technically, terribly, thankfully, thoroughly, tightly, tiredly, totally, traditionally, truly, truthfully, typically, ultimately, uncontrollably, undoubtedly, unexpectedly, unfortunately, unfriendly, universally, unknowingly, unquestionably, unusually, unwillingly, urgently, usually, vastly, violently, virtually, visually, vividly, warmly, wastefully, weakly, widely, wildly, willingly, wisely, worriedly, worryingly, wrongly等。

注:有个别形容词加上后缀-ly后不是构成副词,而是仍然为形容词,但要注意含义的变化,如dead(死的)→deadly(致命的,极度的,死一般的)。

▲-ward / -wards用于某些名词、形容词、副词后面构成副词,表示方向,意思是方向”“方向,如west(西,西方)→westward / westwards(向西,朝西)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

backward / backwards, forward / forwards, outward / outwards等。

4. 用于构成动词

▲-en用于形容词或名词后构成动词,表示使”“使变得”“使具有等,如soft(软的)→soften(使变软)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

brighten, darken, deafen, deepen, fatten, flatten, frighten, harden, lengthen, lessen, loosen, quicken, ripen, sadden, sharpen, shorten, soft-en, straighten, strengthen, thicken, threaten, tighten, toughen, weaken, widen, worsen等。

▲-ify用于形容词或名词后构成动词,表示(使)变得…”“(使),如beauty(美)→beautify(美化,使更美)。近10年高考题中出现过的相关单词有:

clarify, identify, justify, simplify, terrify等。

……(未完) 

——本文摘自《高考英语备考1·速效编》(课标词汇背诵手册)附录一(湖南大学出版社2021年7月出版)

  • 发表于 2021-07-17 08:09
  • 阅读 ( 476 )
  • 分类:高考英语

4 条评论

请先 登录 后评论
陈根花
陈根花

华文出版传媒执行主编

33 篇文章

作家榜 »

  1. 刘永科 48 文章
  2. 黎反修 46 文章
  3. 倪肖丁 36 文章
  4. 陈根花 33 文章
  5. 森腾思英语 30 文章
  6. 凡哥英语 16 文章
  7. 柯选编 13 文章
  8. 王汝涛 11 文章