what to do和what to be done正误判断和区别

请问老师:

I can't decide what to do.

I can't decide what to be done.

是否都正确,含义有何区别?

谢谢。

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最佳答案 2017-12-31 10:53

我认为what to be done是不正确的。

疑问词+to do不定式本质上是wh-疑问词引导的名词性从句的简略形式。当从句的主语在主句中已经出现(通常为句子的主语或宾语),并且从句的谓语是主句谓语时间之后的将来动作,则wh-从句省略主语,同时谓语形式改为to do不定式。例如:

I don't know where I should put the book. = I don't know where to put the book.

I told him what he should do.= I told him what to do.

反过来,疑问词+to do也可以还原成wh-词引导的名词性从句:用主句的主语或宾语作从句的主语,不定式改为情态动词结构。例如:

Please tell me how to do it. = Please tell me how I can do it.

I haven't decided where to go for the holiday. = I haven't decided where I will go for the holiday.

I can't decide what should be done. 这个名词性从句中的成分没有在主句出现过,不能简略为疑问词+不定式结构。

以上内容系根据语法原理进行的推测。供参考并期待指正。

这种情况类似于介词+which+to do作定语,实际是定语从句的简略形式,可以还原为定语从句。

I need a sheet of paper on which I will write a note.

= I need a sheet of paper on which to write a note.

反之亦然:

He wants to build a new house in which to live.

= He wants to build a new house in which he will live.


补充内容:

间接问句(即由一般问句、选择问句或特殊问句转变而来的名词性从句)的使用受句子谓语动词、形容词、或介词的制约,不是可以任意使用的。例如,我们可以说I forget whether Tom was present. 但不能说 I regret whether Tom was present.换句话说,一个句子是否可以使用间接问句,和动词、表语形容词或介词的语义有关。以下为常接间接问句的动词、表语形容词或介词的语义分类在;

1 询问类:ask, inquire, wonder, investigate;

2 知晓类:know, find out, remember, certain;

3 猜测类:guess, estimate, predict, judge;

4 告知类:tell, inform, point out, show;

5 决定类:decide, determine, make up one's mind, agree;

6 依赖类:depend, have a bearing, influence, affect;

7 重要类:significant, important, matter, care;

8 涉及类:concern, about, as to, regarding;

9 惊讶类:surprise, amaze, amazed, amazing; (限于特殊问句)

10 怀疑类:doubt, doubtful, question, questionable; (限于一般或选择问句)

当一个句子的谓语动词、表语形容词或介词为以上语义类别时,我们常可以后接间接问句。

上述第1、2、4、5、8类语义,常可后接疑问词+to do来表示间接问句。这种间接问句的答案带有祈使句的意味,而且常常以祈使句作为答案。因此此类问句也叫做祈使性问句。正因为祈使句是告知、要求、允许、同意某人做某事,因此祈使句的主语必须是人,即不定式的逻辑主语必须是人。这就是为什么疑问词+to do这个结构中不能用被动不定式。例如:

He asked how to pass the exam. I told him," Study harder."= I told him to study harder.

题外话:以上第6、7、9、10类语义的动词、形容词或介词不可后接疑问词+to do不定式。以下四句都是错误的,应该为适当的包含限定动词的宾语从句:

I doubt whether to accept.

It was amazing what to offer.

It depends on how much to pay.

I don't care whether to go or not.

以上系根据Huddleston《剑桥语法》有关内容整理。


继续补充

生成语法根据疑问句的答案,将疑问句在语义上分成信息性问句和祈使性问句。前者的答案为提供某个信息,是一种陈述;后者的答案通常为祈使句,而问句的目的就是征求听话人的建议、允许、批准等。绝大多数的问句是信息性问句,少部分问句是祈使性问句。例如:

信息性问句:

Did he read the book?  Yes, he read the book.

Did he arrive today or yesterday? He arrived yesterday.

When did he come back? He came back last week.

祈使性问句:

Shall I open the window? Open it./Go ahead.

Shall I revise it or rewrite it? Rewrite it.

When shall I come back? Come back before 9.

当这样的问句作为名词性从句时,它们仍然在语义上保持着信息性问句或祈使性问句的性质。

I asked him/I told him/It depended on where she was. = I asked him/I told him/It depends on the answer to the question "Where is she?"(信息性问句。)

祈使性问句则是说话人要求或给予建议、允许、批准等:

I told him what he should do. = I told him what to do.

He asked me how he can do it. = He asked me how to do it.

祈使性问句的特点是,从句谓语动作是未发生的动作,是建议、允许、批准在将来才做的动作。正是因为这种祈使句的意义,使得祈使性问句能够简略成疑问词+to do的形式。换句话说,只有祈使性问句才有两种间接问句形式:完整的限定动词问句形式和简略的疑问词+to do形式。也就是说,疑问词+to do 一定是祈使性问句。信息性问句不可以采用疑问词+to do的简略形式。也正因为祈使性问句的祈使意义,疑问词+to do不用被动形式。

I don't know where I am. 不能改写成 I don't know where to be.

I don't know what should be done. 不能改写成 I don't know what to be done.

what should be done的答案是this or that should be done. 即一个陈述,该问句是一个信息性问句,而不是暗示某人(句子主语或宾语)做某事的祈使性问句。按照Huddlestone的观点,信息性问句是没有疑问词+to do这种不定式问句形式的。

学习语法,是要掌握其原理、原则,以便能够推广应用,而不在于具体一个句子的正确与否。一个间接问句之所以能简略成疑问词+不定式,是因为这个是个祈使性问句,即问句中的主语和主句中名词一致,为祈使句的主语,因而可以省略主语;祈使性问句的动作是还没有发生的动作,故用不定式表示还没有发生的动作。于是省略主语和情态动词,得到疑问词+to do这样的简略不定式问句结构。明白这个道理,你就知道为什么疑问词+to be done是不正确的。即使偶尔有人使用,也是错误的使用了这个结构。因此,我建议网友将疑问词+to be done按照语法错误对待。自己写作英文时一定不要使用。


回复刘老师:

 

我认为:

可以说:I can't decide what should be done. 

不可以说:I can't decide what to be done.

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其它 3 个回答

刘永科   - 教育出版集团英语总顾问 & 英语系列图书主编
擅长:语法理论,语言学,文化背景

两句话都对。

I can't decide what to do.

I can't decide what to be done.

【区别】

句1:表示主语自己该干什么。等于:I can't decide what I should do.

句2:表示主语自己不一定去做。只是说明“该做什么”,由谁去做不得而知。等于:I can't decide what should be done.


更多例句:

There is no mistaking what to be done.  该做什么是不会弄错的。

Everything is clear now; no one would doubt what to be done. 一切都很清楚, 没有人对所要做的事怀疑。


【请教曹老师】

您的意思是这样的吗?

可以说:I can't decide what should be done. 

不可以说:I can't decide what to be done.

还是只能说:

I can't decide what to do.

I can't decide what I should do.

【再问曹老师】

这个句子如何?

Everything is clear now; no one would doubt what to be done. 

一切都很清楚, 没有人对所要做的事怀疑。

Everything is clear now; no one would doubt what to be done. 

一切都很清楚, 没有人对所要做的事怀疑。

来自《简明英汉词典》






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陈才   - 英语教师
擅长:中考英语,词法问题

同意刘老师解答

I can't decide what to do.(作宾语)

=I can't decide what I should do.

I can't decide what to be done.(作主语)

=I can't decide what should be done.


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黎反修   - 英语翻译 (已退休)
擅长:数词用法,存在句,英语考试

I can't decide what to do.(正确)我决定不了做什么。(或:我拿不定主意要做什么。)

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  • 007li 提出于 2017-11-30 18:44

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