解答：以上是典型“现在分词”作结果状语用法现在分词作结果状语The fire lasted nearly two days, leaving nothing valuable.大火持续了将近两天，几乎没剩下什么值钱的东西。Public infrastructure did not keep pace with urban sprawl, causing massive congestion problems.公共基础设施跟不上城市扩张的步伐，造成了巨大的拥堵问题。My grandpa fell off the bike, breaking his right arm and leg.我爷爷从自行车上掉下来，摔断了右胳膊和右腿。It has rained for over ten days, causing the river to rise.下了十多天雨，致使河水上涨。People all over the world sing the song, making it popular.全世界的人都唱这首歌，使它流行了起来。He did not come today, making it necessary for us to find someone to do his work.他今天没来，因而我们必须找人干他的工作。He failed in the exam again, making his mother very angry.他考试又不及格，这使他妈妈非常生气。Her parents had died,leaving him a lot of money.她父母死了，给他留下了许多钱。Fifteen million trees had been blown down by the high winds,blocking roads,paths and railway lines.1,500万棵树被狂风刮倒，把大小道路和铁路都堵塞了。Their car was caught in a traffic jam, thus causing a delay.他们的汽车遇上了交通堵塞， 因而耽搁了。The storm left, having caused a lot of damage to this area.暴风雨离开了，给这个地区造成诸多破坏。He dropped the glass,breaking it into pieces.眼镜掉地上破成了碎片The teacher passed away,making all the students very sad.老师去世了,这使得所有学生非常难过.A terrible earthquake happened in China in 2008,causing thousands of deaths.2008年中国发生了一场大地震,造成了上万人死亡.
It was very wise to leave when you did. 解答：when you did是不定式“to leave”的时间状语，when you did=at the time when you did。备注(1)：did这里是替代词用法，相当于“left”. 备注(2):when为融合型连接副词，相当于at the time when备注(3):to leave at the time when you left为不定式短语作句子真正主语，it为形式主语。at the time when you left为介词短语作不定式时间状语。意思“在你该离开的时候离开”It was very wise to leave when you did. =To leave when you did was very wise.=It was very wise to leave at the time when you left.=To leave at the time when you left was very wise.
We all think that hamburgers are ______ (America) favorite food, but it's not true.解答：填 复数名词所有格形式 “Americans' ” 结构为“one's favorite food=某人最喜欢的食物”
Consider(动词)+名词(宾语)+介词短语(宾语补足语)I considered Rose as a good assistant.我认为露丝是一个好助手。Tom considers music as a very innocent diversion.汤姆认为音乐是一种高尚的娱乐。
In the recent years, sea erosion has led to many turtles' nest 【being damaged】 (damage) or destroyed.解答：以上“many turtles’ nest being damaged”属于动名词复合结构作介词“to”的宾语成分，“many turtles’ nest”动名词逻辑主语。
【1】I saw Li Lei play basketball yesterday.备注：play为非谓语动词中的“不带to的不定式”作宾语“LiLei”的补足语【2】I saw (that) Li lei played basketball yesterday.备注：played为that宾语从句的“谓语动词”句子语法结构分析如下【1】I 【主语】//saw【谓语动词】// Li Lei【宾语】// play basketball 【宾语补足语】yesterday【时间状语】.【2】I 【主语】//saw【(主句)谓语动词】// that【引导宾语从句从属连词】 Li lei【主语】// played【(从句)谓语动词】 basketball【(从句)宾语】// yesterday【时间状语】.
What are the differences between the waste management in Sweden and that of some countries in Africa?赞同蒋老师解答观点解答：that和those除了可以当做指示代词使用，还可以当做“替代词”使用，通常都带有后置定语修饰限定，具有用法如下替代词that用法【一】that指代不可数名词的替代词用法。The price of wheat is higher than that of rice. 小麦的价格比大米高。The light of the sun is much brighter than that of the moon.太阳的光线要比月亮上的光线强烈得多。The weather in Nanjing is hotter than that in Beijing.南京的天气要比北京的热。A dog’s intelligence is much greater than that of a cat. 狗的智慧比猫的高得多【二】that也可以指代可数名词，指代可数名词时，相当于the oneThis story is not so interesting as that we heard last night.=This story is not so interesting as the one we heard last night.这个故事不如我们昨晚听到的那一个有趣。This film is more interesting than that we saw last night.=This film is more interesting than the one we saw last night.这部电影比我们昨天晚上看的那部有趣得多。The computer is different from that we are using. =The computer is different from the one we are using. 这台电脑和我们正用的那台不一样。A grandparent’s job is easier than that of a parent. 祖父母的任务比父母的任务要轻松一些。【三】为了避免重复，that还可以指代前面整句话内容He will ask me to lend him some money and I can’t do that.他问我借点钱，可我不能借。We see him when he comes to town,but that isn’t often.他进城时我们能见到他,但是这种情况不常有.替代词those用法【一】those指代前面复数可数名词形式，相当于the onesThe houses of the rich are generally larger than those of the poor．富人的房子通常要比穷人的房子大。The students in our class work harder than those in their class.我们班的同学比他们班的同学学习更刻苦。