2021年高考英语真题-北京卷(附答案)-word

2021年高考英语真题-北京卷(附答案)

2021年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(北京卷)

英语

本试卷共 11 页,共 100 分。考试时长 90 分钟。

考生务必在答题卡指定区域作答,在试卷上作答无效。

考试结束后,将本试卷和答题卡一并交回。

英语(北京卷)

第一部分知识运用(共两节,30分)

第一节(共 10 小题;每小题 1.5分,共 15 分)

阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,从每题所给的 A B C D 四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

Recently, I took a trip home by train. I got a seat opposite a middle-aged man with sharp eyes, who kept ___1___ a young woman in a window seat with a little boy on her lap. The woman’s eye fell on the man’s face, and she immediately looked down and ___2___ her scarf.

As the night wore on, people began to close their eyes, but the seats were so uncomfortable that only a very heavy sleeper could manage to get any ___3___. The woman looked over at the man. He was still staring at her. She looked back at him with fire in her eyes. I was beginning to get ___4___, too.

The train moved on. The little boy was ___5___ awake on his mother’s lap, but the woman dropped off to sleep. A moment later, he began to ___6___ the half-open window—one leg went over it. The man jumped up and ___7___ the child just before he fell out.

The ___8___ woke up the woman. She seemed to be in ___9___, and then reality dawned (显现). “Your child has been looking for an opportunity to climb out of the window,” the man said as he gave the child back to her. “So I have been watching the whole time.” The woman was ___10___, and so was I.

1. A. guiding            B. bothering         C. watching          D. monitoring

2. A. adjusted          B. changed          C. packed             D. waved

3. A. air                    B. joy                   C. space               D. rest

4. A. nervous           B. embarrassed   C. angry               D. disappointed

5. A. almost             B. still                   C. hardly              D. even

6. A. drag                B. climb                C. knock               D. push

7. A. grabbed          B. rocked              C. touched           D. picked

8. A. alarm              B. quarrel              C. risk                  D. noise

9. A. sorrow            B. relief                 C. panic               D. pain

10. A. astonished   B. confused           C. concerned       D. inspired

 

第二节(共 10 小题;每小题 1.5 分,共 15 分)

阅读下列短文,根据短文内容填空。在未给提示词的空白处仅填写 1 个恰当的单词,在给出提示词的空白处用括号内所给词的正确形式填空。请在答题卡指定区域作答。

A

Why do we dream? Scientists aren’t completely sure, and they have diverse ___11___ (idea). Dreams might be a side effect of memory making. When you sleep, your brain sorts through everything ___12___ happened during the day, trying to link new experiences to old memories. As it ___13___ (connect) things, your brain turns them into a story, and you get a dream.

B

Sam is an in-real-life streamer (播主), and he live streams himself just going about his day. While riding his bike home ___14___ a cold night, he came across a sad-looking elderly woman wandering the streets by herself. The poor woman wasn’t able to give him any information about ___15___ she lived. Sam walked her to a nearby convenience store so that she could ___16___ (safe) wait for the police to take her home.

C

There ___17___ (be) a dramatic rise in the number of extreme weather events over the past 20 years, ___18___ (cause) largely by rising global temperatures, according to a new report from the United Nations. From 2000 to 2019, there were 7,348 major natural disasters around the world, ___19___ (result) in USD2,970 billion in economic loss. Much of this increase can be due to climate change. The findings show a critical need ___20___ (invest) in disaster prevention.

 

第二部分阅读理解(共两节, 38 分)

第一节(共 14 小题;每小题 2 分,共 28 分)

阅读下列短文,从每题所给的 A B C D 四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

A

If you are planning to start a career in the field of education, science, or culture, then an internship (实习) at UNESCO will be ideal for you.

Who can apply?

You have completed your full-time university studies; or

You are studying in a graduate program for a master’s degree.

Applicants in technical assignments must have reached the last year of theirstudies in a technical institution.

What are the requirements?

You must be at least 20 years old.

You should have a good command (掌握) of either English or French.

You must have an excellent knowledge of office-related software.

You should be able to work well in a team and adapt to an internationalworking environment.

You should possess strong interpersonal and communication skills.

What do you need to prepare?

Visa: You should obtain the necessary visas.

Travel: You must arrange and finance your travel to and from the locationwhere you will do your internship.

Medical insurance: You must show proof of a comprehensive health insurance valid (有效的) in the target country for the entire period of the internship. UNESCO will provide limited insurance coverage up to USD30,000 for the internship period.

Medical certificate: You must provide a medical certificate indicating you are fit to work.

Motivation letter: You should have your motivation letter ready before filling out the application form.

Your application will be accessed by UNESCO managers and will stay in our database for six months. We do not respond to every candidate. If selected, you will be contacted by a manager. If you do not receive any update within six months, it means that your application has not been successful.

21. According to this passage, applicants are required to ______.

A. hold a master’s degree in science

B. have international work experience

C. be fluent in either English or French

D. present a letter from a technical institution

22. What will UNESCO provide for the internship period?

A. Limited medical insurance coverage.

B. Training in communication skills.

C. A medical certificate for work.

D. Financial support for travel.

23. What should applicants do before filling out the application form?

A. Contact UNESCO managers. B. Get access to the database.

C. Keep a motivation letter at hand. D. Work in a team for six months.

 

B

I remember the day during our first week of class when we were informed about our semester (学期) project of volunteering at a non-profit organization. When the teacher introduced us to the different organizations that needed our help, my last choice was Operation Iraqi Children (OIC). My first impression of the organization was that it was not going to make enough of a difference with the plans I had in mind.

Then, an OIC representative gave us some details, which somewhat interested me. After doing some research, I believed that we could really do something for those kids. When I went online to the OIC website, I saw pictures of the Iraqi children. Their faces were so powerful in sending a message of their despair (绝望) and need that I joined this project without hesitation. We decided to collect as many school supplies as possible, and make them into kits—one kit, one child.

The most rewarding day for our group was project day, when all the efforts we put into collecting the items finally came together. When I saw the various supplies we had collected, it hit me that every kit we were to build that day would eventually be in the hands of an Iraqi child. Over the past four months, I had never imagined how I would feel once our project was completed. While making the kits, I realized that I had lost sight of the true meaning behind it. I had only focused on the fact that it was another school project and one I wanted to get a good grade on. When the kits were completed, and ready to be sent overseas, the warm feeling I had was one I would never forget.

In the beginning, I dared myself to make a difference in the life of another person. Now that our project is over, I realize that I have affected not only one life, but ten. With our efforts, ten young boys and girls will now be able to further their education.

24. How did the author feel about joining the OIC project in the beginning?

A. It would affect his/her initial plans.

B. It would involve traveling overseas.

C. It would not bring him/her a good grade.

D. It would not live up to his/her expectations.

25. What mainly helped the author change his/her attitude toward the project?

A. Images of Iraqi children.      B. Research by his/her classmates.

C. A teacher’s introduction.      D. A representative’s comments.

26. The author’s OIC project group would help ten Iraqi children to ______.

A. become OIC volunteers      B. further their education

C. study in foreign countries    D. influence other children

27. What can we conclude from this passage?

A. One’s potential cannot always be underrated.

B. First impression cannot always be trusted.

C. Actions speak louder than words.

D. He who hesitates is lost.

C

Hundreds of scientists, writers and academics sounded a warning to humanity in an open letter published last December: Policymakers and the rest of us must engage openly with the risk of global collapse. Researchers in many areas have projected the widespread collapse as “a credible scenario (情景) this century”.

A survey of scientists found that extreme weather events, food insecurity, and freshwater shortages might create global collapse. Of course, if you are a non-human species, collapse is well underway.

The call for public engagement with the unthinkable is especially germane in this moment of still-uncontrolled pandemic and economic crises in the world’s most technologically advanced nations. Not very long ago, it was also unthinkable that a virus would shut down nations and that safety nets would be proven so disastrously lacking in flexibility.

The international scholars’ warning letter doesn’t say exactly what collapse will look like or when it might happen. Collapseology, the study of collapse, is more concerned with identifying trends and with them the dangers of everyday civilization. Among the signatories (签署者) of the warning was Bob Johnson, the originator of the “ecological footprint” concept, which measures the total amount of environmental input needed to maintain a given lifestyle. With the current footprint of humanity, “it seems that global collapse is certain to happen in some form, possibly within a decade, certainly within this century,” Johnson said in an email.

Only if we discuss the consequences of our biophysical limits, the December warning letter says, can we have the hope to reduce their “speed, severity and harm”. And yet messengers of the coming disturbance are likely to be ignored. We all want to hope things will turn out fine. As a poet wrote,

Man is a victim of dope (麻醉品)

In the incurable form of hope.

The hundreds of scholars who signed the letter are intent (执着) on quieting hope that ignores preparedness. “Let’s look directly into the issue of collapse,” they say, “and deal with the terrible possibilities of what we see there to make the best of a troubling future.”

28. What does the underlined word “germane” in Paragraph 3 probably mean?

A. Scientific.      B. Credible.      C. Original.       D. Relevant.

29. As for the public awareness of global collapse, the author is ______.

A. worried         B. puzzled         C. surprised     D. scared

30. What can we learn from this passage?

A. The signatories may change the biophysical limits.

B. The author agrees with the message of the poem.

C. The issue of collapse is being prioritized.

D. The global collapse is well underway.

 

D

Early fifth-century philosopher St. Augustine famously wrote that he knew what time was unless someone asked him. Albert Einstein added another wrinkle when he theorized that time varies depending on where you measure it. Today’s state-of-the-art atomic (原子的) clocks have proven Einstein right. Even advanced physics can’t decisively tell us what time is, because the answer depends on the question you’re asking.

Forget about time as an absolute. What if, instead of considering time in terms of astronomy, we related time to ecology? What if we allowed environmental conditions to set the tempo (节奏) of human life? We’re increasingly aware of the fact that we can’t control Earth systems with engineering alone, and realizing that we need to moderate (调节) our actions if we hope to live in balance. What if our definition of time reflected that?

Recently, I conceptualized a new approach to timekeeping that’s connected to circumstances on our planet, conditions that might change as a result of global warming. We’re now building a clock at the Anchorage Museum that reflects the total flow of several major Alaskan rivers, which are sensitive to local and global environmental changes. We’ve programmed it to match an atomic clock if the waterways continue to flow at their present rate. If the rivers run faster in the future on average, the clock will get ahead of standard time. If they run slower, you’ll see the opposite effect.

The clock registers both short-term irregularities and long-term trends in river dynamics. It’s a sort of observatory that reveals how the rivers are behaving from their own temporal frame (时间框架), and allows us to witness those changes on our smartwatches or phones. Anyone who opts to go on Alaska Mean River Time will live in harmony with the planet. Anyone who considers river time in relation to atomic time will encounter a major imbalance and may be motivated to counteract it by consuming less fuel or supporting greener policies.

Even if this method of timekeeping is novel in its particulars, early agricultural societies also connected time to natural phenomena. In pre-Classical Greece, for instance, people “corrected” official calendars by shifting dates forward or backward to reflect the change of season. Temporal connection to the environment was vital to their survival. Likewise, river time and other timekeeping systems we’re developing may encourage environmental awareness.

When St. Augustine admitted his inability to define time, he highlighted one of time’s most noticeable qualities: Time becomes meaningful only in a defined context. Any timekeeping system is valid, and each is as praiseworthy as its purpose.

31. What is the main idea of Paragraph 1?

A. Timekeeping is increasingly related to nature.

B. Everyone can define time on their own terms.

C. The qualities of time vary with how you measure it.

D. Time is a major concern of philosophers and scientists.

32. The author raises three questions in Paragraph 2 mainly to ______.

A. present an assumption       B. evaluate an argument

C. highlight an experiment      D. introduce an approach

33. What can we learn from this passage?

A. Those who do not go on river time will live an imbalanced life.

B. New ways of measuring time can help to control Earth systems.

C. Atomic time will get ahead of river time if the rivers run slower.

D. Modern technology may help to shape the rivers’ temporal frame.

34. What can we infer from this passage?

A. It is crucial to improve the definition of time.

B. A fixed frame will make time meaningless.

C. We should live in harmony with nature.

D. History is a mirror reflecting reality.

 

第二节(共 5 小题;每小题 2 分,共 10 分)

根据短文内容,从短文后的七个选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。选项中有两项为多余选项。

Music has long been considered to be an enjoyable pastime for many people. ___35___The mental health benefits from music can’t be argued. Music could also be helping you with many other health problems behind the scenes.

___36___ However, for the same reason, music can be very beneficial if one is in pain. By distracting (分心) the mind from the pain, music, people say, can lower stress and anxiety levels. This, of course, can lead to less pain.

Many people enjoy relaxing music in the evening prior to going to bed. ___37___ While the validity of the idea is still being assessed, the lowered stress can even be tied back to blood pressure. Similarly, according to researchers, listening to just 30 minutes of soft music every day may help with healthy blood sugar levels, through the lowering of stress and anxiety.

When it comes to heart health, there is speculation (推测) that it’s not the style of music, but rather the tempo that makes it so good for your heart health. In one European study, participants listened to music as the researchers monitored their heart rates and blood pressure. ___38___ On the other hand, when the music slowed, the participants’ stress and anxiety levels became lower and the effects on heart rates appeared to follow suit.

___39___ But there is a whole range of other health issues that turning up the radio could be beneficial for, which is what makes music so valuable.

A. This feeling can also result in many other health problems.

B. Some experts say that music can be harmful if it is too loud.

C. This idea is a little off-the-wall but still has scientific backing.

D. They say it can play a big role in calming the brain enough to sleep.

E. The implications of music on overall well-being are really impressive.

F. It is also highly popular due to the individualized effects on stress and anxiety.

G. Interestingly, the more cheerful the music was, the faster their heart rates were.

 

第三部分书面表达(共两节, 32 分)

第一节(共 4 小题;第 40 41 题各 2 分,第 42 3 分,第 43 5 分,共 12 分)

阅读下面短文,根据题目要求用英文回答问题。请在答题卡指定区域作答。

Recent research suggests that if an argument gets resolved, the emotional response tied to it is significantly reduced or almost completely erased. Thus, it may be worth bringing up issues with your friends, family members, or classmates rather than holding them back.

There is a difference between arguing and fighting. Arguing is that you and your opponent present your concerns and discuss the feelings and issues related to those concerns. You can engage in an argument respectfully without stirring up (激起) anger. Fighting, however, usually involves personal attacks, raising of voices, and storming out.

Discussing your issues and resolving them instead of stuffing them down can improve your emotional health. In a study, 2,000 people were asked to record their feelings and experiences for eight days in a row. When people had an argument that they considered resolved, they had half the reactivity (情绪反应) of those who avoided an argument. Reactivity is an increase in negative emotions or a decrease in positive emotions. In other words, resolving an argument cuts your negative feelings by half. One day later, people who had a resolved argument reported no increase of negative emotions compared with those who avoided an argument. This means that resolving an argument can feel like you have reached a state of resolution—and you are less likely to be annoyed.

Moreover, the older you are, the more likely you will come to a resolution after an argument. This may be because more life experience usually leads to more defined priorities. You are more likely to distinguish between what matters and what does not.

It is easier to avoid a discussion, but risking talking about it may eventually lead to a better outcome.

40. According to this passage, what is arguing?

41. Why is it that “the older you are, the more likely you will come to a resolution after an argument”?

42. Please decide which part is false in the following statement, then underline it and explain why.

Resolving arguments can improve your emotional health, because it increases your reactivity and reduces the chance of you getting angry.

43. In addition to improving emotional health, what do you think are some other benefits of resolving an argument? (In about 40 words)

 

第二节( 20 分)

假设你是红星中学高三学生李华。你和英国好友 Jim 原定本周末一起外出,你因故不能赴约。请你用英文给他写一封电子邮件,内容包括:

1.表达歉意并说明原因;

2.提出建议并给出理由。

注意:

1. 词数 100 左右;

2. 开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。

Dear Jim,

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Yours,

Li Hua

(请务必将作文写在答题卡指定区域内)

  

2021 年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(北京卷)

英语参考答案

第一部分知识运用(共两节, 30 分)

第一节(共 10 小题;每小题 1.5 分,共 15 分)

1. C 2. A 3. D 4. C 5. B 6. B 7. A 8. D 9. C 10. A

第二节(共 10 小题;每小题 1.5 分,共 15 分)

11. ideas 12. that 13. connects 14. on 15. where 16. safely 17. has been 18. caused 19. resulting 20. to invest

第二部分阅读理解(共两节, 38 分)

第一节(共 14 小题;每小题 2 分,共 28 分)

21. C 22. A 23. C 24. D 25. A 26. B 27. B 28. D 29. A 30. B 31. B 32. D 33. C 34. C

第二节(共 5 小题;每小题 2 分,共 10 分)

35. F 36. B 37. D 38. G 39. E

第三部分书面表达(共两节, 32 分)

第一节(共 4 小题;第 40 41 题各 2 分,第 42 3 分,第 43 5 分,共 12 分)

40. Arguing is discussing your worries, related feelings and problems with the other party.

41. It is because more life experience may help people better identify priorities in life.

42. Resolving arguments can improve your emotional health, because it increases your reactivity and reduces the chance of you getting angry.

Resolving arguments helps to decrease your reactivity.

43.略。

英语(北京卷)参考答案 2 页(共 2 页)

第二节( 20 分)

范文:

Dear Jim,

I’m sorry that I won’t be able to go hiking with you this Saturday.

I began to cough yesterday morning, so I went to see a doctor. She told me it was a bad cold, and I would have to stay at home for a few days.

I’d really like to spend some time with you. Is it OK with you if we take a trip to Zhangjiakou next Saturday? It’s one of the host cities for the 2022 Winter Olympics. Please let me know what you think.

Again, I’m sorry about the inconvenience.

Hope to hear from you soon.

Yours,

Li Hua

  • 发表于 2021-09-04 22:58
  • 阅读 ( 9109 )
  • 分类:高考英语

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