英语基础语法快速入门——there be句式

英语基础语法快速入门——there be句式

英语基础语法快速入门——there be句式

 

一、概说

所谓存在句,就是指表示某处存在有某人或某物的一类句型,这类句型的典型结构是there be…这类表达,所以存在句在通常情况下指的就是there be句型。如:

There is a garden at the back of the house. 房子背后有一座花园。

There are fewer boys than girls in my class. 我班上男生比女生少。

there be句型中的there为引导词,无词义;be为谓语动词,根据情况可以有单复数的变化,也可以有不同的时态变化;there be后面的名词为句子主语。

表示某处存在有某人或某物是存在句最基本的用法,在实际运用中,它可以有更广的用法。如:

There are not enough people to do the job. 干这工作人手不够。

There are a lot of things I’d like to ask you. 有好些事我想问你的。

There are other ways of doing this exercise. 还有别的办法做这个练习。

这几个句子中的there be句型并不具体表明某处存在有某事物,可视为there be句型基本结构的延伸用法。

 

二、there be的谓语问题

1. 主谓一致

there be只有一个主语,谓语的数则取决于该主语的数;若有几个主语并列,则通常是与靠近的主语保持一致。如:

There is a bus stop close to the school. 在学校附近有一个公共汽车站。

There are hairs on your jacket. 你的上衣上有几根头发。

There is a pen and some books on the desk. 桌上有一支钢笔和一些书。

2. 时态问题

there be结构的时态由其中的谓语动词be来体现,它可以有一般现在时、一般将来时、一般过去时、现在完成时以及过去完成时等多种时态形式。如:

There was a hospital nearby. 附近有一家医院。

There has been no rain this week. 这个星期一直没下雨。

There will be something you can enjoy. 会有你喜欢的东西。

3. 连用情态动词

there be结构有时可以与情态动词连用,此时情态动词应放在therebe之间。如:

There must be a mistake. 一定是弄错了。

There can’t be anyone waiting outside. 不会有人在外面等候。

There might still be hope. 可能还有希望。

4. there be的变体

有时根据句子的需要,我们也可将there be中的动词be 换为 live, remain, seem, appear, exist, stand, lie, come等。如:

There comes a bus. 来了一辆公共汽车。

There remained just thirty pounds. 只剩30英镑了。

There seems to be something wrong here. 这儿好像有点不大对劲。

At the top of the hill there stands an old temple. 在小山顶上有一座古庙。

 

三、否定式与疑问式

1. 否定式

there be结构的否定式通常应将否定词置于动词be之后。如:

There is not any bread left. 没有一点面包了。

There isn’t anything I can do for you. 我帮不了你什么忙。

若谓语中包括有助动词或情态动词,通常将否定词置于助动词与情态动词之后。如:

There can’t be so many mistakes. 不可能有那么多错误。

There shouldn’t be any doubt about it. 对此不应有什么怀疑。

There haven’t been any parties in weeks. 好几个礼拜没开过晚会了。

2. 疑问式

there be结构的疑问式通常应将否定词置于动词be之后。如:

Is there any good film on? 映什么好电影吗?

Is there room for me in the car? 车子里还有我坐的地方吗?

Are there any letters for me? 有我的信吗?

若谓语中包括有助动词或情态动词,通常将助动词或情态动词移至句首构成疑问式。如:

Has there been an accident? 出事了吗?

Have there been any new developments? 有什么新的发展吗?

Can there have been so much rain there?那儿会下过那么多雨吗?

 

四、there be的非谓语形式

there be结构的非谓语形式有两种,即there beingthere to be

1. there being结构

该结构在句子中主要用作状语。如:

There being nothing to do, I went to bed. 因为没事可做,所以我就上床睡觉了。

There being no taxi available, he had to walk home. 由于没有计程车可搭,他只好步行回家。

这类结构有时可与状语从句转换,如上面两句也可作如下改写:

As there was nothing to do, I went to bed.

As there was no taxi available, he had to walk home.

另外,there being结构还可用作介词宾语。如:

What’s the chance of there being an election this year? 今年举行选举的可能性有多大?

No one would have dreamed of there being such a good place. 没有人会梦想到竟有这样一个地方。

2. there to be 结构

主要用作动词宾语。可接该结构可用作动词的动词不多,常见的like, prefer, hate, want, mean, intend, expect, consider 等。如:

I don’t want there to be any more trouble. 我不想再有任何麻烦了。

Students hate there to be too much homework. 学生讨厌做太多的家庭作业。

We expect there to be more discussion about this. 我们期望能对此展开更多的讨论。

注意,在let there be结构中,动词be不带to。如:

Let there be no mistake about it. 不要误解我的意思。

Let there be no mistake about it. 这事不要出错。

另外,there to be 结构还可用作介词for的宾语。注意了,用作介词宾语一般用there being,但用作介词for的宾语时,却要用there to be。比较:

It was too late for there to be any buses. 太晚了,不会有公共汽车了。

They asked for there to be another meeting. 他们要求再开一次会议。

 

五、there be+名词+非谓语动词

1. there be+宾语+现在分词

现在分词表示主动关系,同时表示动作正在进行。如

There is someone waiting for him. 有人在等他。

There was a man standing in front of me. 我前面站着一个男人。

There were some children swimming in the river. 有些小孩在河里游泳。

有时现在分词不表示动作在进行,而表示一种状态或现状。如:

There’s a piano standing against the wall. 靠墙有一架钢琴。

There’re a lot of difficulties facing us. 我们面前有很多困难。

There is a door leading to the garden. 有一座门通往花园。

正如come, go, leave, move 等表示位置移动的短暂性动词的进行时态可表示将来意义一样,“there be+名词+现在分词也可以表示将来意义。如:

There are ten people coming to dinner. 有十个人来吃晚饭。

There were about 300 people moving to the new factory in the south. 大约有300人要搬到南方的新厂去。

2. there be+宾语+过去分词

过去分词表示一种被动关系,同时表示动作已经发生。如:

There was nobody injured. 没有人受伤。

There is nothing written on it. 上面没写东西。

There were ten people killed in the accident. 事故中有10人丧生。

In this book, there are some texts learnt before. 在这本书里面,有些课文以前学过。

有时过去分词也可表示一种状态(可转换成被动结构)。如:

There were some old men seated (=who were seated) in the back. 有些老人坐在后面。

There is a red car parked (=which is parked) outside the house. 房子外边停着一辆红色汽车。

3. there be+宾语+不定式

不定式通常表示动作尚未发生。如:

There was nobody to look after the child. 没有人照顾这孩子。

There was a large crowd to send him off. 有一大群人要来给他送行。

There was so much to lose that we couldn’t take any risks. 可能会有很大的损失,因此我们不能冒险。

当其中的宾语与其后的不定式为被动关系时,可用主动表被动,也可用被动式。如:

There is much work to do [to be done]. 有许多工作要做。

但有时含义有差别——不定式用主动式可视为其前省略了for sb,用被动式可视为其后省略了by sb。如:

There is nothing to do. 无事可做。(含有无聊之意)

There is nothing to be done. 不能做什么了。(指没有办法了)

There is nothing to see. 没什么可看的。(即不值一看)

There is nothing to be seen. 没看见什么。(指没东西看)

 

六、There is no+动名词

1. 表示否定

此时表示不可能……”“无法……”。如:

There is no getting over the difficulty. 这困难无法克服。

There’s no telling what will happen. 无法说得上将发生什么。

There is no knowing what he will do next. 无法知道他下一步要干什么。

2. 表示不允许

此时表示不许……”“不准……”。如:

There is no photographing here. 这里不许拍照。

Sorry, there is no smoking in the waiting room. 对不起,等候室不许吸烟。

 

七、There is no+名词+in doing sth

1. 名词为difficulty

There is no difficulty in doing sth的意思是做某事没有困难

There is no difficulty in finding his office. 找到了他的办公室没费一点劲。

There was no difficulty in carrying out the plan. 执行这项计划没什么困难。

2. 名词为harm

There is no harm in doing sth的意思是做某事没有害处

There’s no harm in your coming early. 你早到没有害处。

He may not be able to help but there’s no harm in asking him. 他可能帮不了忙,但是求他一下倒也无妨。

3. 名词为point

There is no point in doing sth的意思是做某事没有用或没有必要

There’s no point in wasting time. 耗时间没用。

There’s no point in telling her about this. 把这情况告诉她没有用。

There’s no point getting impatient with her; she’ll finish the job in her own good time. 不必跟她着急,她自己能找时间完成工作的。

4. 名词为sense

There is no sense in doing sth的意思是做某事没有道理或好处

There’s no sense in criticizing him. 批评他也没有用。

There’s no sense in waiting three hours. 等三小时是没有道理的。

There’s no sense in making him angry. 惹他生气是没有道理的。

5. 名词为use

There is no use in doing sth的意思是做某事没有用或好处

There is no use in trying to help him. 设法要帮助他也没有用。

There’s no use in complaining; they won’t do anything about it. 发牢骚也没用,他们是不会对这件事采取措施的。

  • 发表于 2021-07-17 00:21
  • 阅读 ( 131 )
  • 分类:存在句

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