since done 与since being done,being done 与being doing

being done 一定要有三种理解:1、拆开理解,就是一个类似于副词的词being加done,副词修饰done,说白就是个非谓语动词过去分词done,只是前面有个副词而已,此时没有名词属性;2、非谓语动词现在分词短语;3、非谓语动词过去分词done的进行时(或者其他叫法)。

先说结果,类似的问题我以前视频其实说过了(参考:关于being doingbeing done的分析)。可以用since damaged,没有问题,只是意思不一样。

这里涉及到:1since词性的理解;2being的词性及意思理解;3being done的词性及意思理解(可以对比理解being doing,很多视频只知道从时态考虑,得出结论没有being doing的说话。这是不对的,英语语法有很多对称的现象,有being done 就有being doing。且对being done的理解,要有三种理解方式,如果达不到三种,你就会分析不出来);4、有些传统语法不是在大数据情况搞出来的,所以有很多错误,比如传统老是强调enjoy只能接doinglike 可以to do。现实英语中不是这样的啊,可以去验证下,我记得搜过,还有什么 no use doing

一、since 有三个词性,副词、连词及介词。如果是介词,那么后面只能是being damagedbeing 决不能少!),这个being damaged 理解为一般理解为非谓语动名词短语,但我倾向理解为非谓语动词现在分词短语(非谓语动词现在分词短语具有名称属性,怎么理解,还是从对称性出发,一般情况下,单个非谓语动词现在分词与非谓语动词过去分词只能待在定状补等非必要条件位置上,唯一翻身机会是表语位置。要到主语宾语位置,怎么办,非谓语动词过去分词的解决办法是前面带个the,那么非谓语动词现分词怎么办,单个去主语宾语,词性都变了,成了非谓语动名词。为了对称,那就让非谓语动词现在分词短语可以到主语宾语位置,这样就与the加非谓语动词过去分词对称了,平衡了!)。不管怎么理解,这时的being damaged只能说具有名词属性,决不能说什么被动态的进行时也好也不能说过去分词的进行时。因为介词后面只能跟名词属性的词。有些人看到as required解释为介词加非谓语过去分词,其实不对,此时的as的词性只能取其副词性质。副词和连词后面接非谓语动词过去分词没有问题!

二、The wall has been like this since being damaged by a bomb.此句中的since理解为副词或者连词没有问题,那么后面皆可以接being done 也可以接done,只是意思不同。比如:

The objective, since attained, was to create a set of contractual rules that would establish uniformity in that practice, so that practitioners would not have to cope with a plethora of often conflicting national regulations.

Eight hundred men of the Highlanders, Sixtieth, and Provincial troops were accordingly made over to him; so setting out with these from Loyalhannon he arrived before dawn of the 14th of September at a hill, since namedGrant's hill, within half a mile of the fort.(高地人的八百人、第六十人和省级部队因此被移交给他;因此,他带着这些东西从洛亚尔汉农出发,在914黎明前到达了一座小山,这座小山后来被命名为格兰特山,距离堡垒不到半英里。)

Lord Loudoun was to be their Colonel-in-Chief, Pennsylvania their recruiting-ground, and their title the Royal Americans, an appellation long since displaced by the famous number of the Sixtieth.

那么since是副词或者连词情况下,后面的being done如何理解,后面接done又如何理解?看例句:“If you don't have the ability then blame your parents, wrote Jung Yoo-ra on social media in 2014, after being accepted into a prestigious university. 这个句子是描写朴槿惠闺蜜女儿通过关系入学女子梨花大学后狂态炫耀关系的一个句子,after后面的being being accepted 实际跟你的句子是一个味道。这里的after就是个连词,后面既可以接being accepted 也可以接 accepted,那作者为什么用了being?就是为了表达闺蜜的狂态,这里being实际是个单独的单词,就是一个非谓语动词现在分词,非谓语动词现在分词一辈子都是作定状补,相当于一个副词修饰accepted,在这里有as soon as 或者immediately等意思。翻译成:刚刚被录取就口出狂言,或者一被录取就口出狂言。如果只是用after accepted,那么就只是描述一个事实,没有being这种副词的加持了,只能翻译:被录取后……这种狂态就没有了。当然这里理解为accepted 的进行时也可以,也能表达时间的立即性。

所以:being这个词可以单独理解为一个单词,就是系动词be转化成的非谓语动词现在分词,这个一般动词比如do转化为doing一个道理;

所以:being done 一定要有三种理解:

1. 拆开理解,就是一个类似于副词的词beingdone,副词修饰done,说白就是个非谓语动词过去分词done,只是前面有个副词而已,此时没有名词属性;

2. 非谓语动词现在分词短语(主动态的do sth 转化为非谓语动词现在分词短语是doing sth,那么被动态的is done转化为非谓语动词现在分词短语就是being done。非要理解为非谓语动名词,也可以吧),此时具有名称属性;

3. 非谓语动词过去分词done的进行时(或者其他叫法)。这里牢记:只有第2种情况是,being done才具有名词属性,前面只能是介词,或者介词后面只能是being done!比如at这个词是个单纯介词,只能at being done

回到你这个句子:The wall has been like this since being damaged by a bomb. 加了being,有时间的味道了。翻译为:自从它刚刚一倒塌(联想汉语口语,这很像一种推脱责任时的口语表达:这玩意刚刚一被什么东西搞坏了,就一直这个样子),没有being,翻译成:自从它倒塌。当然你非要将since只理解为介词,那另当别论。

关于being的副词强调味道,可以再看如下句子:

Being doing

When being doing,……

“They died to the last man at Thermopylae, didn’t they, Doctor?” Rhett asked, and his lips twitched with suppressed laughter.

“Are you being insulting, young man?”(为什么加beingbeing就是个分词类似于副词,翻译成:你现在就要羞辱我吗?没有being,翻译为你要羞辱我吗?)

斯佳丽想了半天,还是不明白瑟莫比利是什么。

Doing nothing is better than being busy doing nothing. (这个句子非常好,being有时时刻刻不停的味道,翻译为时时刻刻瞎忙忙碌碌,还不如别干!)

三、传统语法学者在总结语法时由于没有网络没有大数据,很多事片面或者错误的,他们只能搜纸质书(没有电子书嘛),那工作量,是天文级别的,不可能总结到位。我们现在有电子数据,有搜素工具,应该去重新核查下。比如since done确实少用,但是不代表不能用。再比如,高中天天引用那些老的语法书上错误说法,以讹传讹,说只有no use doing,没有no use to do。一搜原版英语书,一堆的no use to do。所以有时候真怀疑谁给了这些泰斗勇气这样随意出书,特别是90年代学应试英语教育的学生,真是冤枉!

The guest spread out his hands, intimating that time and the morrow must take care of themselves; or that it was no use to fight against fate.

There go the banners of Pisa and Arezzo,’ said Cennini. ‘Ay, Messer Pisano, it is no use for you to look sullen; you may as well carry your banner to our San Giovanni with a good grace. “Pisans false, Florentines blind” — the second half of that proverb will hold no longer. There come the ensigns of our subject towns and signories, Melema; they will all be suspended in San Giovanni until this day next year, when they will give place to new ones.’

A great temptation had laid hold of Tessa’s mind; she would go and take that old man part of her supper, and talk to him a little. He was not deaf like Monna Lisa, and besides she could say a great many things to him that it was no use to shout at Monna Lisa, who knew them already. And he was a stranger — strangers came from a long way off and went away again, and lived nowhere in particular. It was naughty, she knew, for obedience made the largest part in Tessa’s idea of duty.

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  • 发表于 2022-08-20 23:26
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