alex119
alex119
实名认证 专业认证

性别: 注册于 2020-06-09

擅长:英语

求助 拜TA为师
82鲜花数
6197 经验值
31个粉丝
0个弟子
主页被访问 3400 次

最近动态

2022-06-16 19:06 回答问题

自然形成的东西,没有施动者或者说不清楚施动者,确实有主动和被动两种用法,它们似乎并无区别。但是你说的这个改错题不是这么回事。They will be formed over thousands or even millions of years.这句话的意思是煤,油和天然气形成的过程经历了thousands or even millions of years的时间,是一段时间,不是某个时间点,所以用被动合适。如果后面加个ago即thousands or even millions of years ago,那用主动被动都可以,你举了两个柯林斯的例子,我也举词典中的几个例子,你可以对比看:The solar system was formed 4.5 billion years ago.The solar system formed 4.5 billion years ago.A thick sheet of ice had formed over the water.These rocks were formed over 4000 million years ago. 再举两个跟你的改错题类似的例子,没有ago:Beliefs about moral values and human nature are formed over a lifetime of experience. Cultural identity is formed over hundreds of years.需要说明的是,有些东西看起来是自然形成的,而实际上有施动者,比如钟乳石,施动者是含有矿物质的水不断下滴造成的。有时在这方面不是很好辨别。

2022-06-16 10:34 回答问题

看你的问题没人回复。我就说一下。这里面有个搭配的问题。The old man looked happy with laughter.这一句用laughter确实是合适的,laughter是不可数名词。而laugh是可数名词,with a laugh这个搭配是没问题的,只是如果用with a laugh替换with laughter,语法上没毛病,但是句意就挺奇怪。with laughing一般用在die with laughing等搭配中,表示的是笑这个动作,笑死了,毕竟是laugh动词加了ing后的形式,不是笑声。

2022-06-05 17:46 回答问题

类似问题很早前就讨论过了。既然再度提出来我也说说。Quirk所说(1260页)确实不妥,同一本书在第367页:She's not the brilliant dancer ( that) she used to be.这就自相矛盾。在随后出版的“A Students Grammar of the English Language”一书中是这么说的:“When the verb in the relative clause is be, the complement pronoun must be that or zero (John is not the man he was).”也说明1260页的说法不妥。实际上Quirk所举的作表语的那两例(P1248-1249)不是限制性关系分句,而是非限制性关系分句,有个逗号就更清楚了。我主要是想说说which用在限制性关系分句中是怎么回事。我更倾向认为这是历史的原因,是语言演化的原因。上世纪中叶,在限制性关系从句中,当关系代词在从句中作表语时,用that(省略更常见)或是which都是可以的。为了避免陷入限制性和非限制性的鉴别之中,举几个肯定是限制性关系从句的例子用which的:1.He is not the man which(or that) his father wants him to be.(Curme的English Grammar1953一书)2.He's not the man which he was.(Usage-Abusage一书第365页)3.He was not the man which the Jupiter had described him to be.(A Grammar of Late Modern English part 2 by Poutsma)问题出在时过境迁而已。当代几乎不会出现上述的例子。简单说就是:作表语的关系词在限制性关系从句中用that (省去更常见),在非限制性关系从句中用which。注意判断是限制性还是非限制性。至于用who则是一种比较特殊的情况,剑桥语法上举了一例,很特别的语境才有可能。剑桥语法与Quirk所说确实是分歧的。只能参考别的书,绝大多数说法与剑桥语法基本一致。

2022-05-21 18:05 回答问题

Rose is taller than I.针对I来提问就是:a.Who is Rose taller than?Rose is taller than me.针对me来提问就是:b.Than whom is Rose taller than?说白了就是把than理解成连词和介词后造成的问题。从使用频率看Who is Rose taller than?尽管也很少见,但是要占绝对优势,没找到Than whom is Rose taller than?这样的例句,可能正如剑桥语法认为的,很正式的文体中才会出现Than位于句首。这个问题一直都是争议很大,比较分歧,见怪不怪了。但是需要说明的是,类似以下than的这种介词用法,人们普遍认为能接受:c.They appointed Jones, than whom no one could have been less suitable.d.He chose Kim, than whom no one could be more suitable.e.It was decided by Judge Darwin, than whom no one could be more impartial.f.Here is Captain Morse than whom there is no braver soldier.(Quirk第368页)这个棘手的问题说说我的看法:1. Fred eats more hambuegers than salads.2. Sam likes bagels more than loaves.我个人也觉得第1句不能改为What does Fred eat more hambuegers than?这不关than提不提至句首的问题,提到句首也不行。我的观察是第一句其中的比较是汉堡包和沙拉,这两样东西怎样比较多少?不如把这句理解成Quasi-coordinative类型更合适。那就没法改成问句了。这样的话,因为第2句与第1句类型不同(体会体会为啥不同),可以用what 提问。

2022-05-10 16:17 回答问题

have作为“吃”这个意义,属于第三类动词accomplishments,即Quirk说的“终结可持续动词”,而作为“拥有”的意义时,则是属于第一类动词states,即状态动词。终结可持续动词可以用进行时态,着重过程而隐没了终点。然而,终结可持续动词的过去时通常呈现“完成貌”,即只剩下终点。回头看看你这个问题就不难理解了!这里的when作关系副词,实际上也可理解为意义等同于and then。My friend Peter arrived at six, and then we all had dinner.这样的话,你的第二个问题就自然不攻自破了!

2022-05-01 10:26 回答问题

想了想,可能另一种理解靠谱一点。实质上是问your first taste of late nights (删除地点状语结构in the dorm or in the Junior Common Room便于分析)discussing the meaning of life是个什么结构 ?我觉得这个结构类似于your first time driving a car。即动名词复合结构your discussing the meaning of life中插入了first taste of late nights这个状语结构。first taste of late nights看起来似乎是名词结构,实际上是起副词作用的状语结构。放假中,节后会研究研究。

2022-04-27 10:13 回答问题

这是Garners Modern English Usage一书中的一句。原句是:My thought was that assigning these rankings to various usages is much more helpful than what one finds in existing usage guides.这里用what是正常的。但是有例外:1.It is a far more spacious and genteel environment than one finds on a commuter train.(The New York Times)2.There are more words to read than previously, but not many, and certainly far fewer than one finds on Mail Online.(The Guardian)3."Manga covers an enormous range of topics, genres and styles of story, far more diverse than one finds in western comics, or on the animated side western television," said Palmer.(The Guardian)4.There was more sincerity in this one hour than one finds in entire months of playing by Mr. Tetzlaff's more famous colleagues.(The New York Times)5."I can't afford that," he concluded.This was a different and more serious side of the Republicans than one finds at tax-protesting "tea parties", on talk radio, or going rogue on a book tour.(The Economist)1-5句也好理解。只是第3句far more diverse是修饰前面的an enormous range of topics, genres and styles of story,因为太长了,如果连在一起确实别扭。6.The Tans produced menus far more varied than one finds in the typical U.S. fast-food joint;including such things as spaghetti and local noodle dishes.(Forbes)6句是因为向上渗透至menus far more varied,仍然正常。7.Sergei Eisenstein's camera, in close-up, trails his actors "like a nose with cocaine" (an image so weird, and so apt, it's fair to say that only Thomson could conceive it), while in modern porn, "the shooting style and its relevance to the action is invariably more fluent and interesting than one finds in today's average feature film".(The New York Times - Books)7句是个例外,再一次说明这种unexpected情况确实存在。

2022-04-26 14:57 回答问题

This result is better than ___ would probably be achieved by a vaccination policy.这一句的主语省略了,本不该省略。只能说这样的例子很特别,也很少见。一般大家都能看出省略了the result,但是正如王老师所说,你要把它补上去是不合适的,因为重复是很忌讳的,除非不得已。所以可以写成:This result is better than the one that would probably be achieved by a vaccination policy.写成what形式的当然也可以:This result is better than what would probably be achieved by a vaccination policy.为了说明是怎么回事,要找类似than后接被动语态的例句,这太费时间,还是找到一个:In their paper, Dr.Mansfield and Dr. Wildberger show that this is better than what would be calculated using a trigonometric table from the Indian mathematician Madhava 3,000 years later.(纽约时报20170830)接下来说说我所找到的外刊(限于纽约时报,经济学人和卫报)than后省略主语(被动)的情况,一一说明:1.I undertook of my own accord a much greater task than had been imposed.这是常见的形式,比较要素充当了than后的主语,当然要强制省略。2.The process offers the prospect of cleaner emissions at lower cost than can be achieved with the methods now used.3.The innovation of Quirk was to build a corpus of continuous texts and spoken transcriptions, selected so as to capture a wide range of contemporary text types and spoken genres – thereby representing the use of the language in terms of time and variety more strictly and consistently than had been achieved in earlier periods.4.Spain’s prime minister, Jose Maria Aznar,though still insisting that the fight against ETA comes first, has responded in a far mellower tone than had been heard for many months.5.For example, nanoscale manufacturing allows the design of probes that can monitor biological experiments with far greater sensitivity than can be achieved today.(经济学人20011222)2-5句省略than后的主语是因为本来比较要素是一个副词短语,但是因为向上渗透的原因,整个比较要素的范围扩大了,而这个扩大的比较要素充当了than分句的主语,因此全部省略了。6.Farmers’ organisations argue that the country should not import foods that are harder on the environment or on animals thanwould be allowed under domestic rules.这一句的特别之处在于foods后接了个定语从句,会向上渗透至整个foods that are harder on the environment or on animals短语。而这个短语又是than分句的主语,故全部省略。王老师举的被动的例子里面有一些就是上述的类似情况,剑桥语法还是能解释。只有以下的7-10句跟开头的那个例句很像(我注明了出处),没法说。7. Winch's study is considerably more detailed than has been described. (Consistency in Cognitive Social Behaviour: An introduction to social psychology一书的第103页)8. This frequency of non-albicans infections is higher than has been described historically. (Infectious Diseases一书第2200页)9. Control system performance must be noticeably better than was achieved by the PI controller shown in Figure 7.80. (没找到,可能是一本专业杂志的)10. As has been pointed out, these gains “per hour” are not necessarily better than has been achieved by some other studies over a longer period.(Dyslexia in Context: Research, Policy and Practice一书的第125页)反过来,这也说明剑桥语法举的上面的那个例子不是孤例,尽管很少,二十多年前人家就预料到了。我在近些年的纽约时报,经济学人和卫报上找过,没有发现这样的,找到的都是能解释的。也可能是我找的不够细。不管怎么说,这种情况下不省略应该是规范的英语。遇到这种省略的情况也不必奇怪,语言是多变的,也是演化的。

2022-04-25 14:11 回答问题

没想到大家对这个问题有兴趣,买椟还珠!从历史的角度就能理解这个问题。其实两种说法都对,大家可以搜索一下这本剑桥语法,两种写法都有。用upwards percolation就是副词修饰名词(某些地点副词修饰名词置于名词前),当然,副词后置于名词的要多见一些(five dollars (and) upwards)。我个人认为极大可能是早期英语的残留,对不对反正就这么用了,遗留至今。在Heaton的著作“Overseas students companion to English studies”第333页这样写道:Originally the suffix ward seems to have been common when the word to which it was added was usedadjectivally: thus a sideward movement, a downward glance; wards is commonly used adverbially: thus to move sidewards (sideways is more usual), to glance downwards. However, most English writers rarely distinguish between the two nowadays, and it is correct to write either an upward directionor an upwards direction, travel southwards or travel southward.在“Collins COBUILD English Usage2019第4版”中有这样一段话:12 modifier useSome place adverbs can be used in front of nouns as modifiers.Gradually the underground caverns fill up with deposits.There will be some variations in your heart rate as you encounter uphill stretches or increase your pace on downhill sections.也许有人会说这里的underground和uphill,downhill都是形容词(见朗文高阶第五版),怎么是副词呢?原因也很简单,如果你手上有比较早期的词典,比如Hornby编写的牛津当代第三版1974年的,当时的downhill就只有副词这一个类别。这也为语言的演变提供了一个证据,也正因为如此,当代的词典就把作形容词的类别加上了。我们用当代的眼光去看待过往,一定会出现很多看似奇怪其实也并不特别的问题。用upward percolation形容词修饰名词,更符合当代的语法认知。

2022-04-22 23:17 回答问题

1990年出版,就是之前版本的浓缩版!