5 简单句和并列句的判断

1. Zhang Tian graduated from university and got a teacher's certificate last year.

2. l got dressed and had my breakfast.

3. He asked for ice for his whiskey and proceeded to get drunk.

有人认为,上述13句均属于简单句,属于同主语并列,即两个动词短语并列作谓语,不是分句并列省略主语。

4. She won the prize and astonished them all.

5. She went to the clinic and saw a doctor.

6. A high position was offered him, but was declined.

也有人与上述看法相反,认为与13句结构相同的46句均属于并列句,第二分句承前省略了主语(5,6句摘自《新编高级英语语法》)。

7. The author describes how a rattlesnake injects its toxin using its fangs, and a male platypus delivers its toxin using spurs on its ankles.

请教一下各位老师:

1. 16句到底应该判定为简单句还是并列句?对这6个句子具体的判定标准是什么?

2. 为何第7句在and后省略了how,并列宾语从句省略第二分句的连接词有可靠的理论依据吗?还是并列分句统辖在一个连接词之下?还有类似这样的权威例句吗?

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最佳答案 2024-06-09 16:40

1.当并列连词直接连接动词的情况下,通常视为并列句主语的省略。如

01She stood up and went out=She stood up and she went out.

2. 但有观点认为,如果两个谓语动词表达了不可分离的一个过程,或者两个动词具有直接的因果关系,则宜视为并列谓语。

02He fired and killed the wolf.

    此句宜理解为并列谓语,因为firedkilled the wolf有直接的因果关系,不宜被视为两个可分割过程。

再比较:

  03Mary sang and danced at the party.

  04Mary sang and then danced at the party.

句(03)的sang and danced可视为不可分离的同一个过程(边跳边唱),则不宜理解为并列句省略主语,不等同于Mary sang and she danced at the party;句(04)则为并列句省略主语,因为两个动词表达了两个不同的过程,故= Mary sang and then she danced at the party

3. 按上述第2条所引用的观点,我觉得上述6句大多是并列句省略主语,但句(4)宜视为并列谓语。

4.但上述第2条提到的只是一个说法,并非严格可靠而被普遍接受。例如:

05Mary stood up and began to dance.

   虽然此句中两个谓语动作是可分离的,但Royal English Grammar依然认为一般情况下这被视为一个简单句(并列谓语);如果在and 后添加主语she,则为并列句。同时,作者又认为有时候难以区分究竟是并列句还是并列谓语。

Quirk似乎也有这个意思,在CGOEL13.12一节他说:And and or may link constituents smaller than a clause; for example, they may link predicates, thus in effect allowing ellipsis of a second or subsequent subject :

06I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day.

既然是可以连接“小于分句”的成分,例如连接谓语,这说明是并列谓语;但又说实际上允许第二个分句省略主语,这好像又成了并列句省略主语。那么,句(06)究竟是什么结构呢?

 Quirk认为是两可的。他继续分析道:For example, the coordinate construction in :

07They have already finished their work and gone home.

can be viewed as a clause coordination in which a subject, operator, and adverbial have been ellipted(主语、操作词和状语省略的分句并列); or it can be viewed as a single clause containing two coordinate predications.(含有两个并列谓语的单一分句)

因此,我觉得在实践中多数情况下不必考虑两种结构的语法名称,尤其在缺乏语境的单句中,没必要为此纠结。

5. 在并列连词连接两个wh-名词性分句时,第二个以及后面的分句都可以省略wh-连接代词或连接副词。例如:

08I noticed how Mary talked to them and (how) they answered her. (GCE)

其它并列手段(连词或逗号等)连接其它从属分句时亦如此。例如(均源于Quirk):

09They admired a man who could make up his mind quickly and (who) would keep his word.

10 If I can find the letter and (if) you are interested in it, I'll let you have it.

11He asked to be transferred, because he was unhappy, (because) he saw no drospect of promotion, and (because) conditions were far better at the other office. 

12He didn't tell us whether to wait for him or (whether) to go on without him. 

再说句题外话,本网站网友不少问题都牵扯句子成分份的分析和术语的名称等问题。但其中相当比例的问题并没有完全统一的标准,也缺乏实际的价值,适可而止就好。

个人己见,仅做参考!

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  • 静心   提出于 2024-06-08 14:45

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