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1天前 回答问题

同意胡老师的分析。这里的定冠词用法,有的语法学者(如章振邦教授)称其为“语境特指”。“语境特指”的意思是: 在某一特定语境,用定冠词或指示限定词,来确定所指说话双方都知道的人或事物。这种确定特指无须取决于上下文,可以建立在说话双方所共有的知识上,也就是说,说话人在谈及某人或某事物时,是以对方已经知道某人或某事物或某事物概念的确切含义为基本前提的。如说话人在谈论“太阳”,“地球”,“月亮”,“宇宙”等时,根据一般知识,他认为听话人是知道“太阳”,“地球”,“月亮”,“宇宙”具体是什么的,所以,说话人就使用了定冠词,同时也体现了定冠词的基本用法:说话双方可以共同确认所指。

2天前 回答问题

倾向于把答案one thousand pounds a year more中的more解释为副词,释义为“additionally; in addition”,而非形容词“additional; extra”之义。所以,从语意理解,似可这样:1) l would receive an extra(adj.) thousand pounds a year.2) l would receive a thousand more(adj.) pounds a year.3) l would receive a thousand pounds a year extra(adv.)/additionally.4) l would receive a thousand pounds a year more(adv.).(如答案句)个人理解,仅供参考。

3天前 回答问题

针对问题句中的a lot,查阅英文词典,lot有的标注为pron.(pronoun),有的则标注为n.(noun),之后列举条目a lot, lots。结果是:《牛津》和《朗文》把这里的a lot处理为代词;《剑桥》和《韦氏》则把这里的a lot处理为名词词组。(也可自行查询网站主页的英文词典)此外,章振邦老师在其《新编高级》里也有说明:相应于a lot of/lots of/plenty of的名词性结构便是a lot, plenty。例如:1) We have a lot (of things) to do today.2) We had paid him plenty (of money).所以,把这里的a lot处理代词和名词词组都有依据支撑。a lot作为主语,其谓语动词必须使用单数形式吗?从词典实例来看,答案是否定的。a lot作主语时,谓语动词的单复数取决于其表示的意义,符合主谓一致原则里的意义/概念一致原则。《牛津高阶词典》实例:1) Have some more cake. There's lots left.2) He has invited nearly a hundred people but a lot aren't able to come.再如:3) Sometimes we have very little snow, but sometimes there's a lot/lots.4) Have a biscuit. There are lots/a lot.最后,单纯从结构形式上看,问题句的先行项可以是a lot(解释为分隔修饰), a lot about outer space, outer space。从语意上看,比较倾向于关系分句的先行项为a lot about outer space。个人理解,仅供参考。

5天前 发起提问

5天前 回答问题

比较赞同你的判断。首先,不妨可以参考一下英文词典对particle(小品词)的英文释义:1.《牛津高阶英语词典》(朗文词典的解释与其类似) :(grammar) an adverb or a preposition that can combine with a verb to make a phrasal verbIn 'She tore up the letter', the word 'up' is a particle.2.《韦氏高阶英语词典》:grammar: an adverb or preposition that when combined with a verb creates a phrasal verbThe phrasal verb "look up" consists of a verb "look" and the adverbial particle "up".3.《剑桥语法》是按照adverb,preposition,adjective, particle来处理up一词的(摘录部分例句):1) Up as an adverbWe use up as an adverb to talk about movement towards a higher position, value, number or level:She put the books up on the highest shelf.The good weather has pushed sales of summer clothes up.2) Up as a prepositionWe use up to talk about a higher position or movement to a higher position:He was up a ladder painting.I followed Vivian up the stairs, where there was a small dining room.3) Up as an adjectiveWe use up as an adjective usually to talk about increases in prices, levels or amounts:The price of fuel is up again.It was cold yesterday but the temperature is up today.4) Up as a particleUp is commonly used as a particle in phrasal verbs:He was brought up by his grandmother.Don’t give up. You will find a job.What time did you wake up this morning?Up is also commonly used as an adverb particle followed by a preposition in phrasal prepositional verbs:I had to run to catch up with Elaine. She walks so fast.个人理解,仅供参考。

6天前 回答问题

我觉得可以这样理解:Good families are much to all their members, but everything to none.转折并列连词but用于连接并列表语much和everything,to all their members和to none分别作状语。如把much解释为状语,to all their members为表语,似有不妥,如去除状语much,则为Good families are to all their members。所以,完整的解释可以是:Good families are much to all their members, but (good families are) everything to none.

6天前 发起提问

2024-05-17 11:14 发起提问

2024-05-16 21:57 回答问题

比较赞同你的分析。短语动词go on后的不定式解释为其宾语,是有一定依据的。如国内语法学者张道真教授在其《英语语法大全》中,是这样描述的:另一些动词用不定式作宾语和用动名词作宾语意义不同。He went on teaching lesson five.(= He didn't stop after teaching some part of lesson five.)He went on to teach lesson five.(= He began to teach lesson five after finishing lesson four.)张道真教授应该是把go on视为及物短语动词的。从词组动词的构成形式来看,“不及物动词+副词”往往具有“不及物性”,而“及物动词+副词”往往具有“及物性”。那么,不及物动词go+副词on一般会解释为具有“不及物性”,所以后接不定式或动名词作宾语,似乎不太合适。把其后的to do和-ing形式解释为状语,似乎更为妥帖。但是,短语动词的及物与不及物性完全符合上述构成规则吗?似乎也不尽然。在词典中可以找到一些相反的实例。如:1) look over 为“不及物动词+副词”,本应具有不及物性,而《牛津词典》将其解释为look sth over,视为及物短语动词。2) keep on 为“不及物动词+副词”,本应具有不及物性,而《麦克米伦词典》把keep on解释为:keep on [transitive] to continue doing something3) carry on 为“及物动词+副词”,具有及物性,《牛津词典》有carry sth on,carry on doing sth的及物性用法条目。但是,同时也把carry on解释为具有不及物性,即:carry on (with sth)4) give up 为“及物动词+副词”,具有及物性,有give sth up,give up doing这样的及物性用法,但是,《牛津词典》也有其不及物性的使用。所以,从上述的反例来看(虽不具普遍性),把go on判定为具有及物性(虽不符合通常的构成规则),后接不定式或动名词作宾语,也不无道理,而且简单易行。而且从carry on的用法carry sth on,carry on doing sth,carry on (with sth)来看,同时具有及物和不及物性,和go on的用法go on doing sth,go on (with sth)类似。再类比continue (with sth),continue doing/to do sth,continue sth。此外,《朗文词典》也用continue一词来解释go on的。当然,把go on解释为不及物短语动词,把其后的to do和-ing形式解释为方式和伴随状语,也十分有道理。比较倾向于二者包容,不褒贬其一。可能go on具有不及物性,其后的to do和-ing形式作状语,更具解释力吧。个人理解,权当参考。

2024-05-16 11:19 发起提问