5 比较分句的倒装结构

as/than引导的比较分句可以采用倒装结构。但这种倒装有其特点,一般语法书很少专门提及。Huddleston的《剑桥语法》则对比较分句倒装结构专门作了说明,特在此与网友们分享。需要说明的是,以下内容不是该书的原话,是我的整理。例句也是我自己编写的。


as/than引导的比较分句都可以采用倒装语序。倒装的目的是为了让分句的主语处于句末信息中心位置,或者由于分句主句较长,将主语移至句末符合尾重的原则,避免分句头重脚轻。所以比较分句的倒装本质上是分句主语的后移,属于完全倒装句的范畴。当主语为人称代词时,由于人称代词表示的是已知信息,一律不倒装。这一点与部分倒装句是不同的。

但需要强调的是,比较分句中的倒装只能倒装操作词,除了操作词以外的动词部分必须省略。这一点与其他完全倒转句又有不同。所以,比较分句的倒装是完全倒装和部分倒装的一种混合形式。

下面用几个例句说明比较分句的倒装特点:

He worked hard, as his brother did/worked. 从句谓语可以重复worked,也可以用did替代。

He worked hard, as did his brother. 从句倒装,突出主语his brother.

He worked hard, as worked his brother. 错误。worked不是操作词,不能用于比较分句的倒装。

He will become a doctor, as his brother will (become). become通常省略,但也可以不省略。

He will become a doctor, as will his brother.  从句倒装,突出主语。

He will become a doctor, as will become his brother. 错误。比较分句的倒装只能倒装操作词,become必须省略。

He will become a doctor, as will his brother become. 错误。比较分句的倒装是完全倒装句,主语必须位于句末,become必须省略。

She is a doctor, as he is.

She is a doctor, as is he. 错误。比较分句的倒装是为了突出主语这个新信息。人称代词表达的是已知信息,不可以倒装。

She is a docor;so is he. 正确无误。so引起的倒转句为部分倒装句,与主语为何无关。


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  • 曹荣禄 提出于 2020-03-31 19:46