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2022-06-03 13:54 回答问题

感谢各位网友参与。我这个题是根据外媒的一句话改编的。原句:Reuben Roberts was not only a good man and a good neighbor, which he surely was, he was a generous one, too.这里应该是选which, 根据《剑桥英语语法》的观点,在作be动词的归属性表语时,关系词在非限定性从句中用which。该书原文:Ascriptive predicative complement of be: “Which” occurs with antecedents denoting human beings when the relativised element is complement of auxiliary be in a supplementary relative.夸克的语法大全提出了相反的观点,我认为鉴于该书出版较早,出版于上个世纪80年代,而《剑桥英语语法》出版于本世纪初,该书的提法和目前的英语使用习惯基本一致,所以我更倾向于《剑桥英语语法》的说法。——————————————————和各位网友说几句题外话:我近日发现某位答疑老师经常抄袭我的解答。如果我后答,通常都是我发现他的解答有不准确的地方或我有不同观点时,我才做答,这主要是对网友的学习负责。否则,我不会解答的。我发现当我提交解答后,过了不久,这位老师按照我的解答把自己不准确的地方修改了,然后把我的解答要点抄了过去。我认为这种做法是不合适的。这样,网友看到两个完全相似的解答,甚至认为我的解答是多余的,因为我是后答的。有些网友多年前曾批评过这位老师的这种做法,请看本站链接https://www.cpsenglish.com/question/21826我认为作为解答老师,如果已经有其他老师解答了,只要你认同解答的观点,无需再解答。你不能把别的老师的解答的观点完全搬过来,然后自己补充几个例句。这实际是抄袭,对别人不尊重,也不道德。我也建议网友在采纳答案时,如果遇到相似解答,应该采纳提交时间早的答案。我本人不在意解答是否被采纳,也不在乎鲜花。来这里主要是出于对英语的兴趣。通过和大家交流,我也学到不少,大家共同提高。

2022-05-31 06:33 回答问题

感谢大家参与。除了蒋老师解答外,我再给大家提供一个依据供参考:p 1032:

2022-05-28 07:59 回答问题

这个句子错在than I'm here. 在这种并列比较句式中,比较分句不可使用缩写形式。(主句可以)。 依据:美国著名语法专家Joan W. Bresnan所著:“Syntax of the Comparative Clause Construction in English”, Linguistic Inquiry, Vol. 4, No. 3请大家参考上面的论述,带星号的句子为错句。希望以上分析对大家学习有所帮助。英语中的很多细节变化,会影响句子的对错。我们也可以设想一下,英语中还会有类似的我们不一定掌握的常见细节,如果稍作改变可能不符合英语的惯用的例子。

2022-05-26 11:16 回答问题

这道题应该选B.此结构中主句含有such,要用否定形式。请看美国出版的语言学杂志Linguistic Inquiry, Vol. 4, No. 3的一篇文章:Syntax of the Comparative Clause Construction in English,文章写道:

2022-05-21 06:58 回答问题

感谢曹老师和千千老师的参与。我给大家提供一本语法书的解释,仅供大家参考。此题是根据Timothy Osborne著A Dependency Grammar of English的第409页例句所改写,请看该书的例句和讲解:该作者认为1b正确,2b错误。该书作者在有些章节引用过《剑桥英语语法》的观点,说明作者熟悉该书。《剑桥英语语法》谈到than whom 表示疑问的用法为marginally possible. 意思是勉强可以,或少数情况下可以,言外之意,更常见的说法是什么呢?该书似乎没有提及。Who is John taller than? 的用法是否更多见?

2022-05-18 17:30 回答问题

谢谢大鹏老师参与。这道题应该选sat. 我是根据今天我在美国CNN网站的一篇文章里看到的一句话改编的:She wasn't in the mood to spend six hours sat with someone who didn't understand the concept of personal space. https://edition.cnn.com/travel/article/chance-encounters-airplane-romance-new-york-california/index.html我过去也见过类似的句子,我在外刊上查了一下,如:Instead he just drove around all day and spent hours sat in the car. Clive Sheldon, Love Loss and Oranges,2016, p 66  ...but he'd spent hours sat in his van — not asleep, just still, like a wax replica of himself.Ella Medler, Blood is Heavier, 2016I was happiest alone, and I spent hours sat on the sofa in my dress, reading a book, my legs curled beneath me, until one day a bright flash crossed my eyes and triggered alarm.也许大家习惯了spend time doing sth, 对过去分词sat的这种表示状态用法没太注意。

2022-05-13 09:10 回答问题

本以为这个题出的有点简单,没想到还有网友有疑问。请看国外英语出版物例句:1. Their kids went to the same school as mine. Joaquin De Torres, PIPER'S, INC. 2, 20162. She had children going to the same school as mine.Doreen Gravelle, My Life, My Journey, My Soul, p2213. Her children attended the same school as mine. Dr. Selene Maya, Silent Cry, Loud Echo, 20184. It is nice that you work in the same company as mine.‎Berth Danermark, The Experience of Hearing Loss, 2016, p107例句有很多,仅选几例供参考!

2022-05-08 18:59 回答问题

谢谢曹老师的参与。我和大家分享一下我的看法。首先,我认为对于一些基本用法,无论哪本语法书都是相通的。但因为《剑桥语法》是用英语写的,可能使非母语读者出现理解的偏差。我谈一下我对这个问题的理解。1. 该书这个句子The difficulties are even greater than appears at first sight. 作者把它归为嵌入分句一节,为什么?因为主句主语difficulties是复数,但appears 却用了单数,因此它只能是嵌入分句,因为只能补全还原为than it appears at first sight that the difficulties are great. 但是如果appear 变复数,那么就不再是嵌入分句,补全还原为than the difficulties appear great at first sight. 这属于比较对应项difficulties为主语的省略。英语中than appear 用复数的用法是很普遍的。国外出版物类似例句很多,我暂提供几个结构完全一样的: 1.The shifts required were much larger than appear at first sight. 2. It has more enemies than appear at first sight. 3. The rules are far less burdensome than appear at first sight. 4.The differences in level from the Forest Service projections are thus greater than appear at first sight.     根据谷歌图书语料库统计,than appears 和than appear用法的出现频率统计,大约为2:1. 这个比率,如果认为than appear (复数)是不合乎语法的用法是根本站不住脚的。请看三个例句:More instances have been brought to clear the one, or elucidate the other, than appear at first sight to have been necessary.Brian Vickers, William Shakespeare: The Critical Heritage, 1995, p. 553我们从书名可以判断,作者应该是研究莎士比亚的专家。肯定是educated speaker.That Fisher's poetry is full of forms does not imply that there are more things in its heaven and earth than appear at first sight. Angela Leiton: On Form: Poetry, Aestheticism, and the Legacy of a Word, 2008年版 p.236这本书是关于诗歌、唯美与文字遗产的,作者也肯定是受过良好教育的学者。Second, there could be more differences than appear on the surface (such as lexical and syntactic inequality across languages, and the difficulty of translation).Marion Grein, ‎Dialogue and Culture, 2007,p 253这本书应该是关于语言和文化的。图书预料库有很多类似例句,我们可以肯定用appear 也是正确的,只是句子结构发生了变化而已。2. 我对《剑桥语法》这段话的理解:Restrictions on omission of subjectIn clauses where the verb is retained, the subject can be omitted only when it is the counterpart to the comparative phrase or is understood as an embedded clause, as in (d) above:[22] i More people came than [ were invited ].              [counterpart to comparative phrase]ii He spent longer on it than [ seemed necessary].       [embedded clause]我翻译一下:主语省略的限制条件:在保留动词的从句中,只有当主语是比较从句的比较项或被理解为嵌入分句时主语可以省略。注意作者的意思,当被理解为嵌入分句时。 我上面讲了,问题句因为主语是复数difficulties,appear 为单数,必须理解为嵌入分句it appears that. 但如果appear用复数就不能理解为嵌入分句了, 那属于比较对应项的省略。 He spent longer on it than [ seemed necessary].       [embedded clause] 作者把than seemed necessary 归为嵌入分句,也是因为这里只能理解为it seemed necessary that... 无法有别的变化,如果理解为than后省略he, 也不符合逻辑和表达习惯。回到问题句:The difficulties are even greater than appears at first sight. 这个句子完全可以有两种理解。一种是嵌入分句,即than it appears at first sight that...  另一种就是比较从句:than they (the difficulties) appear great at first sight. 两个理解都是正确的。以上是我的理解,欢迎大家指正和讨论!

2022-05-07 20:11 回答问题

    感谢网友积极参与。近日因和大家交流,发现在这个问题上网友困惑比较多,观点也难一致,我分享一下我的理解。不对的地方,请各位老师网友指正。首先,我觉得也许是网友对原文理解有偏差。我把原文译成汉语,然后稍作解释。    翻译:句[i]没有什么特别之处:what we gave her 和其他名词短语没有明显的不同,比如the book we gave her。特别要注意的是,[i]可以扩展为:She apparently liked it more than she liked what we gave her. (她显然喜欢这个东西(it) 超过了我们给她的东西)。句[ii]的意思(至少明显可能的理解)是“She apparently liked it more than we liked it”. (她显然比我们更喜欢它)。在这里,what we did 不能扩展。相反,我们可以去掉what把此句变成 She apparently liked it more than we did.(她明显比我们更喜欢它)句ii因此实际上使用了一个融合关系的名词短语代替了比较从句。这第二种结构通常在口语中出现,但在出版的书面作品中却不常见。它是否属于英语的标准变体是很值得怀疑的。    我的理解:作者其实说得很清楚,句子1是对的,可以扩展补全为:She apparently liked it more than she liked what we gave her.也就是说该句的意思是她对某物的喜欢程度超过了对我们给她的东西的喜欢程度。比较对象是是宾语it 和what we gave her. 因为只有用what 才可以把we gave变成名词结构和it 对应,所以此句必须用what we gave her=the thing that we gave her.        句2作者认为what的使用不规范。作者推测该句要表达的意思是:“她显然比我们更喜欢它”。用我自创的一个词就是“平行比较”,即她和我对某物喜欢程度的比较。实际上比较主体是主语两个人,喜欢程度是比较客体。作者说句中的“what we did"不能扩展,去掉了what,才能扩展为:“She apparently liked it more than we did.”,这就变成了“平行比较”结构,即她和我对某物喜欢程度的比较。主句分句的两个比较关系为平行关系。如果使用了what, 就语义不通了。此句She apparently liked it more than what we did. what we did 作为一个名词结构,在此句中会产生逻辑混乱。所以作者在这段里的括号里写道“(至少明显可能的理解),这意味着这个句子可能产生歧义。为什么呢?因为what we did 的意思是:我们做的事”,did 在what结构中不能是liked 的替代词。只有平行比较结构,可以用do 替代谓语动词。因此what we did (我们做的事)实际上和主句没有逻辑对应点。去掉what, 就解决了这个问题,变成了平行比较结构,即we 和主句she的比较。这个含义作者没有展开说明,我想因为作为母语的人,不会把what we did 误解为what we liked. 但对中国学生则很有可能。    有的朋友认为,该句错在what we did 不能扩展本身,认为than是连词,后面成分必须能扩展为句子才可以。我认为这样的理解不准确。不是所有的比较从句,《剑桥英语语法》在p 1113-7的2.2节,作者用了几页主要论述了有些比较从句是不能扩展为句子的,原文写道:One initial point to make is that there are unquestionably some constructions where a single element following than/as is an immediate complement, not a reduced clause.The underlined expressions here can’t be reduced clauses, because they can’t be expanded into clauses:还举了很多例子和分析,如:It is longer than a foot. 这个句子的分句为a foot, 无法扩展补全。 因此,认为英语中比较从句成分都可以补全为句子是错误的理解。这大概也是为什么该书把than定义为介词的一个原因。以上是我根据自己的语感做出的分析,不对的地方,欢迎指正。

2022-05-07 09:49 回答问题

我分享一下我的理解,供大家参考:The Ariadne was going to be much hotter than our space people had ever dreamt of. 《剑桥语法》作者认为此句要用dreamt of. 当然这个句子也应该是选择英文书刊的。用of 适合本句语境。这句话的意思是:阿里亚娜火箭和宇航员过去梦想中的火箭相比,其温度要高很多。。注意,our space people是比较从句的主语,有的网友把主语理解为定语从句 our space that people had ever dreamt of,不准确,也不合乎语义。our space people = our space travellers.原句的分句之所以用了of, 是因为分句省略了宾语The Ariadne,= than (the Ariadne) our space people had ever dreamt of.英语不说dream sth. 所以要有of.那么这个句子是否可以省略of呢?如果我们省略of, ,那么dreamt 后就是省略的是宾语从句,从语法角度可以,但语义逻辑会有变化,受语境限制。从句相当于than our space people had ever dreamt (that the Ariadne was hot)的意思。整句的意思也变了,应该是:阿里亚娜火箭和宇航员过去梦想中的火箭的温度相比,它的温度要更高。这里就出现了逻辑问题,似乎人们盼着火箭温度要有一定温度。只有特殊语境才有可能。否则,是荒谬的。因为火箭目的运载,有没有温度不是目的。所以,原句用of才符合常理。请比较和体会国外英语出版物的两个类型的例句:使用of类型:1.There are more things in heaven and earth than she dreamed of in her youthful philosophy. 该句比较项为things, 从句这里省略了of 的宾语things, 因此of 不能少。当然也可以换用about. 2. She flung out accusation bitterer than she dreamed of.该句比较项为accusation. of 后省略accusation.不用of类型:1. It had been longer than she dreamed. 该句不能用of, 因为dreamed 后省略从句。比较从句补全为:than she dreamed (that it had been long).2. Almost every woman finds the thing so much harder than she dreamed it could be.句子本身带有从句。3. He possessed more patience and understanding than she dreamed possible.分句补全为:than she dreamed (it was possible that he possessed the patience). 注意原句中的possible 不能改用副词possibly.